• Blood Moons Signs of the Times for Humans

    WHY FOUR BLOOD MOONS ARE A SIGN OF THE TIMES!

    Youniverse
    Youniverse

    By; Theresa J Morris

    hour Glass Humanoid
    Hour Glass Humanoid

    There are markers in time and we are about to share the  four blood moons in time in 2014 and 2015. The dates for the four blood moons occur in six-month intervals on  April 15, 2014; October 8, 2014; April 4, 2015, and September 28, 2015.

    People in North and South America will be able to see the entire eclipse.

    People in the  western Pacific will catch only the last half.  The moon will be setting in most of Europe and Africa during the eclipse, so residents there won’t see much.

    The reasons for signs of the times and seasons of our species is to mark time in space for all of us in the universal family not just those visiting the planet Earth, Gaia, Sophia.

    We are part of a greater family of humanoids in space. We are among the universal citizens and must learn to become a Level One Planetary Sentient Intelligent Being Species.

     

    We do this by recognizing our place in space and our entire co-creation as one planetary class of humanoids. We are at a level of survival in this place of existence. We are all born, we live, and we die. We are all body-mind-spirits sharing the birth-life-death process.

     

    We are given throughout our time in space signs of the times to assist us in recognizing our place in space in the larger scheme of things we call “The Big Picture”.

     

    We who enjoy sharing happiness and avoid suffering are like everyone else on the planet. This is the most common form of existing. We who want to be loved, want to be successful at what we do, still have to make sure we have our own comforts met before assisting others with theirs.

     

    We who want to change the world and make a difference recognize that change is good for us all. However, most people on the planet are in the survival mode and that is where those who are in charge of keeping order in chaos want to keep us controlled.

     

    We are each responsible for our own personal welfare in this working world of survival mode. What level of survival is a choice we each make each day. We want more than to recognize we are all here to grow, maintain, and thrive. Food, clothing, shelter, health, and wellness is important to all of us. We all share the basics of needs to be human.

     

    All the various people in the world who want to make a difference can see themselves in each other just trying to maintain their own status quo. Those who are in the formative years of becoming are those we believe to be babies, toddlers, children, in adolescence and teens who attend school and are obtaining their education in order to become a contributor to our global society on this planet.

     

    However, in the past our ancient ancestors were going about this planet finding things to take from others instead of learning to share what they have with others. If we as a global society can recognize that there is plenty of everything to sustain us all on this planet then we will be doing ourselves a favor in the long run for everyone’s health and prosperity.

     

    This is why we should all recognize that we can all become entrepreneurs and learn to co-create more than just our own level of maintenance.

     

    If we make an effort to live and exist with enough food, clothing, and shelter for ourselves at a certain level then we can adjust our future for the entire global enterprise to maintain life on the planet that can increase more abundance. Abundance in health and prosperity for all is a worthy goal for any Level One Community on a Planet such as Earth.

     

    How we begin doing this is to decide what it is that we all require as minimalistic for our own maintena nce and growth. We are all here and we all got here the same way. This we have in common. We can all begin recognizing that we are all humanoids regardless of from what place in space our original makeup may have been co-created.

     

    If we are human then we all got here in this time and place in space the same as any other. We were co-created with someone’s assistance. We did not magically appear on our own. The fact that we survived past the age of thirteen means we must have had help along the way from other humans. We have learned that reaching our teen years was harder for some more than others. The fact that we were born in different locations around the globe also needs to be taken into account for many of us must first learn to communicate in a language we were born into to understand. Therefore, we have found ways to set up education around the planet and we should make sure that all humanoids are given the basic education up through a level to offer some type of talent and skill to the global community.

     

    We should also make sure that everyone regardless of the conditions they were born into are allowed certain unalienable human civil rights.

     

    Our future in space will depend on us understanding who we are and how we fit into a society as a citizen of a certain home planet. One we leave home and are learning to survive on our own without our family and friends help this is when we learn how to work among others and to offer our energy.

     

    We all must learn what we have inside our own body-mind-spirit that can serve us inside and out so that we can learn to grow and maintain our own lives on our own.

     

    What we need to survive is taught from the time we are born and that is taking into account that we can make it in this world with others. We must learn to become educated enough to learn to communicate our desires to sustain ourselves as a human and to not be a burden on society as a whole.

     

    There of course will be the children, the elderly, and those who have mental and physical disabilities which will need to depend on the global society and we can work this into our humanity with compassion and empathy that is creating a healthy environment for us all. We can learn to adapt and overcome most anything if we learn to adjust our society as a whole to take care of that which we cannot change among our present society as a global community.

     

    The fact that we need energy around the world is secondary to food, water, clothing, shelter, and survival skills in the harsh climate that this planet may have in various times and seasons. We should after the time on earth dated as December 21, 2012 learned to describe this as an entire planet and global society. We have now reached the tipping point at seven (7) billion and over in total population of our species on one planet.

     

    Now is the time in 2014 and 2015 of the “FOUR BLOOD MOONS” as “THERE IS A TIME AND A SEASON FOR OUR SPECIES TO BECOME ONE PLANETARY CIVILIZATION”.

    TJ Morris ACIR ET DNA R US ACO LLC USA
    TJ Morris ACIR
    ET DNA R US
    ACO LLC USA
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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • Vladimir Putin – The World’s New Freedom Fighter against American Socialist Expansionism?

    On the surface, the outrage expressed by the US government over Russian aggression in Crimea and the threat of more military action in Ukraine seems like we are concerned that Russia suddenly has aspirations of forced expansion into much of Europe as well. The US government also paints Vladimir Putin as suddenly, having USSR style ambitions of world domination.
    In reality, nothing could be further from the truth. Of course, here in the states we are told of world events according to the will of the government in slanted reporting from major news outlets that are controlled by the government in what and how we are allowed to see. In other words, we are only privy to news that shows the US government as the righteous entity in a world of evil empires.
    The main reason the US government wants to show Putin as the bad guy is because he is putting his foot down to American aspirations of a New World Order. The first step Putin took to stop American expansionism was his peace deal preventing the US from invading Syria back in the fall of 2013. Since then, the US has used tactics to destabilize Ukraine in hopes of installing a government ready to join the European Union.
    http://www.opednews.com/articles/Washington-Orchestrated-Pr-by-Paul-Craig-Roberts-Crisis_NGOs_Protest_Russia-140212-424.html
    Syria was a turning point for the American government’s quest for world domination in the fact that the American people finally woke up from their media induced stupor to realize their own government was supporting terrorist organizations abroad, while using the threat of terrorism as an excuse for Tyrannic laws at home.
    The truth is, the threat from terrorism here in the US isn’t any greater now than it was in the 1970′s. We are only led to believe it is, because the Federal government needs the excuse to have a Socialistic Dictatorship in power as it now does.
    Another dead giveaway that terrorism really isn’t a threat is the fact that after 9-11, the border with Mexico was never closed at any time and remains as open today as ever.
    The real enemy to the Federal government is the American people. This explains the NSA domestic spying program which only scrutinizes US citizens.
    The American people are also subjected to Gestapo like tactics of search, seizure,, and nude scanning at all airports, before being allowed to board a flight.
    In every city, with a population above 30,000 there are cameras at every street corner, recording image as well as audio of every citizen in sight.
    From The Patriot Act (which was authored by Joe Biden in 1995), the NDAA, to the countless Executive Orders from President Obama, making him a supreme ruler. America doesn’t have a Constitution any more. We are only left with only dictated rule of government.
    Russia has been standing idly by since the first Gulf War in 1991, watching the US use every excuse and tactic it could to justify invading foreign countries. From the US invasion of Afghanistan, Iraq, as well as the military involvement in overthrowing the Mubarak government in Egypt in creating chaos among the people for his ouster, and the so called liberation of Libya by way of NATO military involvement. The US has expanded at an astounding rate, through aggression in the world by military force since the early 1990′s.
    The US is presently involved militarily in many North African countries in an attempt to change governments there to ones willing to join the American vision of a NOW, run by a central banking system.
    The US in addition to using military force to change governments around the world, also spends billions of dollars per year in aid and weapons to these countries.
    Since Obama took office, we now see the US government supporting terrorist organizations in the form of arms, billions of dollars and actual military help. Groups such as Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood which we were told were our enemies since 9-11, seem to be far from it, judging from the American support they have been receiving.
    In today’s world, it is Russia’s Putin who fights for Democracy and against an evil ever expanding empire in the form of the US government.
    All this is an example of how things can change over time.

    Tony Elliott

    Tony R Elliott, Author, Editor, Book Aura Visions, American News Magazine, Social Paranormal Magazine and others. Radio Talk Show Co-Host on TJ MorrisETRadio on BlogtalkRadio.com/TJMorrisETradio Saturday Nights 8 Central. Syndicated Columnist for various ezines online. Political Commentator, Editorial Opinions, Member ACE Folklife Authors Club, ACO Press Club, TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club,

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  • Goldman Sachs Encourages Women Entrepreneurs

     

    TJ Morris ACO LLC -KY USA- Woman Small Business
    TJ Morris ACO LLC -KY USA-Spiritual Entrepreneur  GOLDMAN SACHS 10,000 WOMEN, IFC LAUNCH

     

     

     

     

     

    UP TO $600 MILLION FINANCE FACILITY TO CLOSE

    CREDIT GAP FOR WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

    Joint partnership to create The Women Entrepreneurs Opportunity Facility, the first-ever global

    finance facility dedicated exclusively to women-owned small and medium enterprises that will

    enable approximately 100,000 women to access capital

    NEW YORK, March 5, 2014 – Lloyd C. Blankfein, Chairman and CEO of The Goldman Sachs

    Group, Inc. (NYSE: GS), and Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group, today

    announced a partnership to increase access to capital for women entrepreneurs. The partnership,

    which deepens 10,000 Women’s commitment to women entrepreneurs, will aim to spur lending

    in developing countries through the first-ever global finance facility for women-owned small and

    medium enterprises (SMEs). The Women Entrepreneurs Opportunity Facility will be seeded by

    the Goldman Sachs Foundation and IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, and will raise up

    to $600 million in capital through investments from additional public and private co-investors to

    enable approximately 100,000 women entrepreneurs to access capital. Goldman Sachs and The

    Goldman Sachs Foundation will also continue to operate its business and management education

    program.

    “Through the experiences of 10,000 Women graduates, we have seen, first-hand, that investing in

    women leads to economic growth and job creation, but there is clearly more that can be done to

    unlock the potential of women-owned businesses” said Lloyd C. Blankfein. “By partnering with

    IFC, we will address one of the biggest obstacles to growth for women-owned small and

    medium-sized businesses – access to capital.”

    “This new initiative will create opportunities for tens of thousands of female entrepreneurs to

    thrive and prosper,” World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said. “At the World Bank

    Group, we are committed to providing opportunities to aid women as leaders, business owners,

    employees, and stakeholders. We cannot afford to exclude half of the world’s population from

    their rightful role in helping to change the face of the global economy.”

     

    A wide range of surveys show access to credit is the biggest constraint on growth for all SMEs

    and women-owned businesses face an even larger credit gap than their male counterparts. IFC

    estimates that about 70% of women-owned SMEs in developing countries are either unserved or

    underserved by financial institutions, resulting in an estimated $285 billion credit gap for

    women-owned SMEs. Goldman Sachs has released new research, Giving Credit Where It Is

    Due, which demonstrates increasing female access to capital can have a tangible impact on per

    capita income, particularly in developing and emerging markets. According to the report, if the

    credit gap is closed by 2020, by 2030 incomes per capita could be on average around 12% higher

    across the BRICs and Next 11 countries, relative to our baseline scenario.

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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • THE IRANIAN CONNECTION: THE DISAPPEARANCE OF MALAYSIAN FLIGHT MH370

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to Beijing, China with 227 passengers and 12 crewmembers on 3/8/2014 is unique in the fact that no one seems to have a clue of what really happened. The more time that passes with rescue efforts discovering nothing, raises more questions that go unanswered.

    The only suspicious finding so far, is the two passengers aboard the flight who had stolen passports, raising the possibility of a terrorist act. Since the plane simply disappeared with no communication and dropped off the radar suddenly, the likelihood of an on board bomb explosion should be ruled out. If a bomb were the culprit, it would have been detected by radar as well as leaving floating debris on the surface of the ocean.

    The oil spill detected in the supposed crash site more than likely isn’t from this plane at all, but from ships dumping oil as they do on a regular basis.

    Recent reports of family members calling the cell phones of their loved ones and getting a ring as if the phone were still working and intact is creating a slew of conspiracy theories, but depending on the carrier, it would be possible for a destroyed cell phone to still have a ring tone. Since the disappearance took place over the South China Sea, most cell phones would be out of range of service. For the most part, the cell phone service provider would place any caller to the voice mail of destroyed phones.

    If the plane had just dropped out of the sky at 30,000 FT because of a complete equipment failure, the pilot would have had time to report the situation. In most cases, an airliner which experiences engine failure will be able to glide for about 20 minutes before losing momentum and crashing.

    Reports of the plane making a U-turn, just before disappearing may indicate it was hijacked and abruptly taken below an altitude where it couldn’t be detected by radar. If this is the case, a catastrophic failure can be ruled out since a U-turn would have been impossible to make.

    The plane’s black box should still be transmitting signals that could even be detected by satellite, giving rescuers an exact location where it is. Yet, in this case, no signal, or at least we aren’t told of one.

    If the plane is not found in the next few days, or ever, we must assume the plane was hijacked and taken to a nearby country where that government wants to keep the disappearance a secret. If this is the case, the two passengers with stolen passports must be the hijackers. Recently, news has surfaced that the two men in question were Iranians.

    http://www.haaretz.com/news/world/1.578976

    If this is so, it answers the question of the plane’s mysterious U-turn. If the Iranian government wanted to hijack the plane, it would have had its hijackers make an abrupt turn and head to the nearest friendly Muslim country. In this case, it would be East Timor, the most likely country, located in the opposite direction from the flight path.

    The reasoning behind this hijacking by the Iranians makes sense also because of the 20 Freestyle Semiconductor employees on board.

    http://finance.yahoo.com/news/freescale-semiconductor-employees-confirmed-passengers-224500802.html

    These employees would assure Iran of a massive step forward in technology as a whole and weapons technology in particular. The Iranian connection also partially explains the cell phones of certain passengers acting as if they are in range of cell communication. They would be in this case, all just sitting in some room unattended.

    If the remains of the plane are not found, an Iranian theft by hijack makes the most sense in a senseless disappearance.

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    Tony Elliott

    Tony R Elliott, Author, Editor, Book Aura Visions, American News Magazine, Social Paranormal Magazine and others. Radio Talk Show Co-Host on TJ MorrisETRadio on BlogtalkRadio.com/TJMorrisETradio Saturday Nights 8 Central. Syndicated Columnist for various ezines online. Political Commentator, Editorial Opinions, Member ACE Folklife Authors Club, ACO Press Club, TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club,

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  • ET Spirit American Community Online

    BookCoverPreview

    ET Spirit

    Community Online Guidebook

    By Theresa J Thurmond Morris


    Copyright Page

    This book ET Spirit Community Online Guidebook is published by TJ Morris ACO LLC and owned by Theresa J Thurmond Morris aka Theresa J Morris, KY USA.

    Self-Help – Ascension, Education, Spirituality,

    • ISBN-13: 978-1496013613
    • E book Number
    • ISBN-10: 1496013611
    • Note:

    This information can be used by individuals or to share in groups, classes, seminars or in adjacent with our articles and by-laws in the book called “How to Social Network Metaphysics”.

    This book is to be read as a reference or cover to cover.

    ACO acronym Associates Cooperative Organization

    Ascension Center Organization, Author’s  Club Org, ACO Culture Club and in m co-creation with ACE, ACE Folklife Club, Adult’s Continuing Education, ACE Metaphysical Institute, and ACE Nonprofit Inc. A Foundation for Associates Cooperation as a Community Online Practicing Skills.  Mail: tj@tjmorrisACO.com
     ET Spirit awakened extraterrestrial Soul

    1. You know you are destined to do great things

    2. You have a way of being selfless and desire to contribute to humankind

    3. You are conscious of all other beings around you and honor their existence as your own

    4. You are kind, loving, and respectful

    5. You love a higher power inside yourself and in others

    You are an ET Spirit Awakened Soul!

    ET Spirit Credo

    I would not interfere with any creed of yours or want to appear that I have all the cures. There is so much to know, so much to do, so many things seem real, and so many things are true. The way that I may go may not be the best path for you. I give this spark of life as a spark of light to be, to guide you through the dark but not tell you what to see.


    Ascension Avatar Masters Mission Statement

    We the members of the Ascension Center ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and education awareness.

    Services Provided

    We share services as private and group counseling, study groups, classes, seminars, written publications, audio/visual products and workshop materials. These are our way of offering our guidance and assistance as a synthesis of ancient wisdoms and new thought teachings and philosophies.

    We provide faith, hope, love and light for the sustaining of our culture and traditions among our members on planet earth and in space the place of our former family and home.

    History Guide

    Description

    We are the ones who educate, serve, and teach. We are the ones who bring magic into light. We are they who share our ET Spirit among others and bring forth the hope, love, and light of wisdom in our way of being. We are about being, doing, and having that which is good for all. We believe in the attainment of higher spiritual meaning by and through continuous education for sharing and exercising our mind and our bodies through the spirit. We recognize various forms of consciousness, sub-conscious, and super-consciousness, supreme-consciousness inside and outside of us all. We recognize we are microcosms inside the macrocosm.

    We are an organization of ascension awakened ET spirit beings also known on planet Earth-Gaia-Sophia as Ascension Avatar Masters.

    We are servicing an organization of patrons through the United States and the world. Subscribers receive a monthly report/newsletter of information as posted on our website and are given books, classes, seminars, and other materials published by the Ascension Centers as ACE Nonprofit Inc. under the Ascension Universal Life.

    Offering

    We offer a spiritual gathering place for private and group counseling, classes, publications, seminars, and other spiritual and educational products and services.

    Classes and seminars are formed to discuss experiences, materials, revelations, and teachings of transformation in individuals and our communities. We continue to expand our transformations through consciousness as well as for healing the planet with love and light in a trusted environment.

    Each member is offered the opportunity to accept a lifetime membership. Their name will be placed in our perpetual book of all ascribed members of the Ascension. This book will be called the “Book of the Living”.  Each member will be continually supported in our ET Spirit Family.

    Each member will be continually supported in their spiritual and educational growth, self-improvement, Speechcraft, communication, and leadership abilities.

    Support is given each member to live in a balanced life of body-mind-spirit sharing in the birth-life-death process. This includes the whole life living philosophy of emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual well-being.

    Whole life living is making the world a better place for all. Donations are welcome and encouraged to appreciate the work we are doing to co-create the world and all that come here to work and enjoy leisure and sleep time. We are all appreciated and welcomed by our peers. We share as colleagues including those who desire to share in the Ascension Universal Life Unity Church Meetings in our Ascension Centers Organization Ministries. We counsel as we share Spiritual Science of Metaphysics. Some are ministering angels of the Ascension Age. Some are ministers of the clergy, while others are lightworkers and truthseekers.

    Some of our members are students and teachers. Some are in the helping vocations such as clergy workers, clinicians, chiropractors, college professors, medical doctors, psychic counselors, psychologists, nurses, police officers, Reiki healers, school teachers, social workers, technicians, and other “helpful” positions.

    Some are astrologists, mystics, oracles, philosophers, prophets, sages, seers, shaman, tarot readers and other titles in the working world professions which share time on earth for continued growth and support of individuals and groups who desire to co-create together as spiritual entrepreneurs.

    We also have conferences where we share similar interests and recognize our peers in our growing Ascension Age Community.

    ET Seminars and Divine Expo are both co-creations of our members who joined together in our community online practicing skills on the Internet and World Wide Web in Cyberspace.

    We would like to recognize the history of both the Internet and World Wide Web in cyberspace and include it for your knowledge as a convenience to our members to all recognize the support of others contributions in the back of this book…

    Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

    Aliens Ascension Age Core Values – Tectonic Economics

    Artistic Values – Tectonic Economics of the Ascension Age

    ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

    Promotes Health & Prosperity For All!

    Ascension

    Intelligence Summit

    For Healthy debates breed creative solutions.

     Andromeda Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit -

    Alliance WITH THE

    Milky Way Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit

    ~and~

    Galactic Federation Alliance with Andromeda Galaxy

    Artistic Values of our Human Species.

     Artistic Values are also called aesthetic Values. These express pleasure with a person or object.

     Artistic Values address the importance of rich values of great importance.

     There may be beauty, good taste, symmetry, and the opposites.

     We all hold civilized judgments. As civilized people, we call fall subject to the “ALL” species as the “Critical Mass Mind”.

     In our infinite wisdom we all share around the world our collective involvement in the preservation of our art, culture, literature and music. With these four creations we all express our own taste with or without proper training with complimentary skill concepts.

     Artistic values are often brought into play in forensic events even if only indirectly.

     For instance; building all cars for fossilized fuel consumption we were not anticipating the future intent

    of depleting our fuel resources. Therefore, we are now dealing with alternate fuel sources such as electricity for our automobiles and trains along with other transportation equipment needs.

     We may experience betrayal and half-truths of what we now consider covert affairs in the ET UFO Community and we desire to have full disclosure of what all our governments around the world have chosen to keep covert and not disclosed to the public.

     We have decided that it is no longer in our best interest to keep the information regarding aliens and UFOS and USOS under the secret need to know only cooperation of all foreign and domestic affairs.

     When the UFOs of aliens are already in the minds and efforts of the general public this will affect the

    Critical mass mind and what we now also call the global brain of the entire global community.

     If everyone is experiencing change and acceptance for the entire world as mysteries of the mystical spot

    We may regard the future global brain as that which we may experience as serendipity.

     This means that many people begin using the same energy and getting the same ideas from that of the “Global Brain” or the critical mass mind which drives the entire force and power of the essence we call the Energy Grid in space and on the planet earth in the vibrations and sound waves we can all receive.

     This allows people to receive unlimited thoughts for change and for the imagination to work at its best

    With the overall intent of making the world a better place to live for all.

     Free will is without equal on this planet and in space among all the humanoid sentient intelligent being

    Species. The energy of freewill is without equal and is out chosen essence for the creation and of the

    Creation of the “ALL” in the “I AM” of each of us.

    One might say that our free will of life is what is inside each of our minds and the essential driving force

    In all of us which is the power of our origin we call God/Goddess as the source of all creations or as that

    Which is represented as the “ALL” and the “NATURE’S GOD”.

     Nature’s God also is involved with the environmental protection which is most important for the entire planet and species to survive. This is why our ancestors all were in tune and engrained with the story of all that came from space and when we all think of the creator we always think above and vertical as up in space.

    Meaning just about all tribes of people on the earth will raise their finger and point to the sky when asked where we come from or where God is located. This is essential to the understanding of our fellow humankind on the planet we call earth. We are all living here and we call ourselves earthlings in space.

    This word separates all of us from others who are of the same humanoid species just from other planets in other galaxies in space.

     Freedom of Speech is accepted and yet we are all taught to be humble and act as Goodwill Ambassadors for our own specific cultures and planets. This freedom of speech by all can be more important than the foreign national model of national security. We must all learn when to speak and when to listen and when it is time to join into a conversation about the participation in the future of humanity on all planets to be inhabited in the future.

     We are now earthlings who will be invited into a planetary conversation about the Galactic Federation and what we can expect to become in the near future over the next fifty years.

     We are to be personal and share our professional skills. We shall share our desires, motivations, talents and hope that our usual greed of our species does not come into play.

    The President of the United States is to be tested. The heart of the North American continent in past world wars has been both mother and father to the new world.

    This is done as is the same set of values and rules that are understood as informal and formal for future global tectonic economics. We share space in the cosmos and honor all tectonic economic plates as separate and apart. However, we must share that we stand with five spacecraft on earth for monitoring and sending back to the Galaxy Federation and then up to the Supreme High Council that which happens on the planet earth.

    The world we know still has gun runners, terrorist’s cells, and other hoodlums that are to be told how to become future community citizens of space. We must teach them and instruct them in the proper way to share time on earth with other citizens of this planet earth.

     We know that the past has been about policing those who did not fit into society and may have done horrible deeds such as killing and murder of another being on the planet. Those who inflict harm on themselves or other beings must be taught how the mind works and what is expected on a working class planet.

    This is why we always begin teaching all children from the early age of two years old by professionals who are engaged in the planetary instruction for the entire Galactic Federation. Two years to twenty years of earth years are for personal training in the earthly affairs of education to become a global citizen. Twenty to twenty-five are accepted earth time in annual years for higher studies. Prepare for positions twenty-five to thirty in apprenticeships in positions of leadership and authority. Graduate high school at eighteen and begin twelve years for mastering a doctor’s in philosophy. Talented skills may prevail in art, clergy, culture, education, science, technology, history, folklife, and metaphysics. Talented skills may be taught in certification programs for certain working positions without serving a full twelve years in education for certain professions. This includes the social and helpful skills of social entrepreneurs and personnel and physical information in security in our military on earth and in space. The cosmos will be protected from those who would inflict harm on the planet and species.

    In the past all those in power have been accustomed to secrecy of the conversations held among those who are of the celestial realm or from space.

    We now assist in the investigations of all beings no matter what the demographics and logistics.

    We can utilize the satellites from above for policing the entire planet. Sleeper cells in the world are always suspected. We have global concerns for planetary security.

     Scanning all public geographical locations in the future will be part of our casing places for anyone who

    may pose a threat to harm themselves or others. We are going to share in the future policing of the planet in public places as well as in our local communities at the town, city, region, and state levels.

    Then we shall address those in charge of each tectonic place on the plates that travel on the surface of the planet. We understand that there are already names given for the Tectonic Plates and we can abide by the use of the names already used and in place.

     Value judgments are highly elevated and relevant due to our curiosity. Intelligence relationships are delicate.

    We share that when one agency on earth decides to participate in value judgments in the intelligence community it has already shared in the discussion and debate in their own internal operations before their own final vote of what is to be presented as a proposal is voted on in their own tribe and community.

     The final vote for the entire planet after close discussion and debate is given on each Tectonic Plate as this will be how the future of the planet will be divided up for equal votes based on supply and demand and the entire population count on the planet based on the demographics and logistics of the Tectonic Plates.

     When one agency of a Tectonic Plate Origin is chosen to represent the population on that particular plate we can then share other levels of living within the global commerce that is presently called world trade and commerce one earth. This is to specify a policy change for the Tectonic Plate due to the needs of the many with a representative we shall call the Director of Chief Agent who has been voted in as the spokesperson for that particular Tectonic Plate Division on Earth.

     To specify policy change in a species that deals with the past generations decisions may become enhanced in the future due to the needed upgrades for today’s modern time’s one earth. The new upgrades were scripted and talked about on earth in the past by who others on earth now realize were their own ancestors from space and brought here to the planet earth.

     Our success in forensics of our species was enhanced by understanding the nature of our needs by well qualified decision makers who are called the Supreme Allied Council. We have the Galactic Federation of Twelve elected officials who oversee the galaxies and all the space fleets who actually secure the territories.

     The Galactic Federation in turn answers to the Supreme Allied Council above for this universe and all others.

    The Universe has then a Higher Council that answers to the level of the Fifth Dimension and so on and so forth on up the chain of command in the Omniverse.

     This is how it has always been done by our forefathers and ancestors in space who are called the humanoids as the sentient intelligent being species. We have empires in space.

    When relevant values of conflict in nature occur we assess our priorities which have been determined in the past to save our lives. The roles of value judgments gives rise to opulence and ultra-nuevo of those who are elevated due to their longevity in space and in time.

    We have those who are of the game of life affairs in the past and some of these would give rise to romance in our cultures of proliferation. We have come to question our feelings and all want to benefit from the survival of our species without causing undue concern and stress of the emotional nature of humanoids.

     We all have emotions and feelings as humanoids this is obvious. However we desire to become more diplomatic as ambassadors of goodwill among all our humanoids species and honor the cultural traditions of all planets.

    We shall learn what we can all benefit from sharing that we all must have both male and female interaction of our species in order to survive.

    Therefore we must vouch and concur to concede to our friends and relations and use social networking and friendly interactions with all humanoid species of both male and female of the species regardless of looks and desires. We must learn to upstream our permanency in the galaxies and in the universes.

    We must intercede that the procreation of all humanoids as sentient intelligent beings is a permanent

    arrangement in space.

     From there we have decided to discuss among all planets humanoids hot to maintain the survival of all our humanoid clans as one species among all galaxies among all universes in space.

    We use the same terms in the lower realms of existence as humanoid sentient intelligent being species in the cosmos universally, multiversally,  metaversally, and xenoversally in terms inside the Omniverse. The two higher realms we honor as the Alphaverse and Omegaverse as the sixth and seventh realms of heaven. Those two realms are reserved for the Supreme-Conscious.

     Some may still object to the universal authority which is made of women or females as well as men and males. It is obvious that we must not disregard this as an old spirit of the ancients that were full of spite and jealousy. We have learned about these petty emotions and feel that those on earth can rise above these ancient ways and terms of all our ancestors.

     We must advance our specie and learn to operate as teams of both the male and female of all the galaxy tribes of our species of humanoids.

     We shall learn to congregate and communicate with honor and share our morals as ambassadors of goodwill for we will be seen by those who are not bionic but may resemble humanoids yet have no soul.

     Therefore in the future, the world will require that the local, states, regions include the entire

    Federal laws and legislatures passing policies that are created in administrative branches of government

    That deal with the breaches in society.

    The foreign transactions for the few and for the plenty in the all have the alien needs and alien alliances

    Which will edify and affect the entire future of the Galaxy Federation in Space? Our foreign alien alliances

    Include the earth and earthlings now as our guests in space due to the young beings who have been nurtured and created on the working class planet called earth.

     We have come to repair the change sin in everything in the future.

    The future is always and forever and those who have been on earth were told that

    We would come and share and repair the eternal forever which is a long time to remember and some who have been born in the last few thousand years have forgotten.

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit – Earth Tectonic Economics

     We have Current Tectonic Plates on Earth that will share in the future Geographic Power Status.

    We all care about health and prosperity and job sustainability for a working class planet is crucial

    To the survival of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species. Therefore, there is a new development in a rather old regime that is based upon our ancient civilizations past history with our new and modern technological welfare for the entire planet’s sustainability based on geographics and logistics.

     In the academic working world in education and the making of future doctors in philosophy or Ph.D.’s,

    We will need more categories in the future in order to work in Tectonic Economics and Global Sustainability dealing in feeding the entire population of our 7 billion plus point.

     It is said that we are working towards change to begin with the next presidential election scheduled

    In the United States of America the main global power of the working class planet at the present time.

    However, without the future being decided at the working class level with jobs and sustainability for all including health and welfare issues it is unlikely that the power can be sustained at the nation level.

    Therefore the future will lie with more integrated leaders with the United Nations for the entire Global

    Economy. The future is at stake and there are those in the entire global populace that realize the entire

    Humanoid species relies on work.

     The working class planet is made up of the working class people as the majority. This must be taken into

    account when figuring out the future of humankind on earth.

    Planet & Space

    Sustainability issues include the following:

    1.

    First with “Water” as the main concern of humankind.

    2.

    Second is “Oxygen“or the other way around.

    3.

    Third is “Food“and keep in natural and organic to the planet.  We must maintain a natural environment for our sustenance.

    4.

    Fourth is “Clothing”.

    Includes clothing, work uniforms, for work, skills, talents for jobs and

    5.

    Fifth is “Shelter”

    Homes for our families and for ALL including Animals, plants, Humanoids, Minerals

    The Fifth includes

    Spacecraft on Earth and in Space.

    6.

    Sixth is “Health” maintenance of body-mind-spirit and emotional body for us all on our home plant and in space.

    7.

     Seventh is “Communication” for all of us on the planet and in space. We now know staying in communication is of vital importance of our species. “Communication” purposes

    is taken into account with the important “Education” to accomplish all of the requirements by our species on earth and in space. We need education to perform sustainability of all on planet and in space.

    8.

    Eight is “Prosperity” and thriving in our Work & Monetary Gain including leisure and sleep time.

    9.

    Ninth is “Transportation”. We recognize that we are a mobile society of citizens and transportation is part of our daily activity in most all life styles that entail work, leisure, and home life styles.

    To and from “Work”, “Leisure”, “Home”, to obtain products and services as needed and required  on planet and in space.

     “NINE” working class requirements. While Tenth is Faith Based

    10.

    Tenth is “Faith”.

    One’s personal faith does deal with their own whole life living in body-mind-spirit and emotional health and well-being. We are all microcosms in the macrocosm.

    The entire world’s population is based on this and then comes

    11.

    Eleventh this is “Security” of all of the “TEN REQUIRED COMMANDMENTS” in order to sustain

    A working class planet. We share security for the planet and species, as well as, the entire cosmos. Cosmos seven heavens levels and dimensions is a constant.

    12.

    In Global Tectonic Economics,

    Twelfth is “Acknowledgement” that we are not alone in the cosmos of the seven heavens and dimensions as realms we call the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, omniverse, Alphaverse, Omegaverse, multi-dimensions of our spiritual science new thought teachings and including the ancient past, present, and future in what we call time and space and working space-time.

    Global Tectonic Economics takes in all twelve for the desires of the Higher Council and the Supreme Beings as the Supreme High Beings above. As above so below which is said to be the best way to view the earth from space as extraterrestrial in origin. We share their “Bird’s Eye View from Above” on how to govern the planet while in the Working Class Planet Status. Class one is now at the level of acceptance that others above exist in space as below on planet earth. Acknowledgement is the first step in the evolutionary process of becoming a true part of the overall Omniversal Alliance Family.

    Alliance in the Cosmos with the Alien ET UFO Community Crew

    Sharing the Alien ET UFO Experience as the Inner Awakening Crew

    Take control of your inner spirit and awaken the conscious mind to the observer inside that is connected to all things, all people, all places, and all things.

    The younger generations who came after Star Trek, Star Wars, Star Gate generations call this the Energy Force.

    Become Cosmos Metaphysicians

    Share as ET Spirit

    •        Engage your awakened observer inside and write a book!

    •        We are all the authors of our own life stories.

    • We are the creator, writer, designer, choreographer, actor, and director.
    • We do it all as the observer while we are spirits inside the body.
    • We are all consciousness inside the unity consciousness that is the balance of essence energy inside that which was created in the beginning that has always been.
    • We allow those who came before us as our ancestors who may choose to guide us.
    • Teach yourself and analyze everything you do from with inside as an observer.

    Awaken to the greater possibility that we are all something greater both inside our own body-mind-spirit of which we call the mental-emotional-physical-spiritual (MEPS). We are also a neurological being with a physiology that requires us to feed our energy so that our physical will not starve to death and die.

    We also are to feed ourselves spiritually and to grow our spirits from the basic new soul and re-birth to that of attaining a higher level in this lifetime and the one to come.

    We are all a soul having the use of a body-mind-spirit that is sharing the birth-life-death experience with outer selves on the same planet.

    We shall honor the golden rule and know that we treat others the way we desire to be treated.

    We know that Newton’s Third Law of Motion is for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    We are to believe that there are some bad demons in this world that can enter one’s own body-mind-spirit and act out their emotions if one allows this to happen.

    We can go anywhere we want inside our minds to paint our thoughts.

    We have an inner thought process where we can use thoughts to create visions.

    We are the observer of the pictures we create in our minds.

    We are not our minds we are spirit.

    We are spiritual beings.

    We are sentient intelligent humanoid beings.

    We are all a part of the sea of souls and we must learn to go with the flow.

    We are all energy as essence of the one and all.

    We now share various particles, waves, vibrations, in

    Various forms which are immortal.

    We experience waves in motion and sometimes we calm our waters and there is no breeze when we are being still just to know.

    We learn to let go and let God. We are all more than the total some of our parts and our past. We are both made up of both male and female and in order to share a soul we always will remain so in the cosmos.

    GOD & GODDESS

    The highest level of consciousness of the eternal immortal essence as the oldest which was in the beginning which has no end as a never ending circle is that which has always been. We do not question that which has always been in the eternal bond of the Alphaverse and Omegaverse outside the Omniverse…

    God and Goddess are in us all and the inner awakened awareness of their presence during our meditation and yoga can allow us to hear the divine guidance. We all have guides and our inner messenger may be our own observer or our higher consciousness.

    We are deeper than our own conscious. We are deeper than our own thought process when we can hear ourselves think and then we try to say what we should be doing and we hear another voice speak to us like the still small inner voice we know that our minds are trying to tell us what to do. We need to use this type of awakened awareness and learn to say STOP when we are overcome with thoughts and emotions and feel anxiety and fear coming upon us.

    We can know that S is for Stop. T is for Take3 deep breaths and smile in all parts of one’s own body energy which will assist our nervous and immune system and laugh at our situation when appropriate.

    We can share O is for Observe. Observe the situation we are in and our surroundings and the sensations we are experiencing or enduring.

    We can then say P as in Proceed with kindness and compassion and persevere with love in our hearts and have an open mind and heart to what we are experiencing in the now.

    We can calm ourselves and others around us simply by thinking the opposite of whatever we feel as anger, anxiety, confusion, or fear that is causing the problem.

    Self-image is what you think of you. Image is what others perceive of you. We may or may not agree with another’s perception of what we are projecting but what other’s think and perceive is not something we are here to control and it is not our business to care about what others think of us when we are in a peaceful loving knowing and understanding place going about our own business.

    We know that we are the observer here as an explorer to find out who we are, why we are here, and where we go when we leave this existence. We know that Karma is the Echo of what energy we put out to others. We expand our positive energy consciousness and when we allow ourselves to feel fear we contract and feel negative energy consciousness.

    Spiritual Advisers and mentors are simply guides forging a path and leaving a trail for others to find if they use their freewill and free choice to do so. No one can make another do anything unless they want too at the mind and spirit level.

    We are trained on earth to take ownership of our own actions and learn to not react unless it is a natural response to danger that crosses our path that is life threatening then we may react to the situation of which may be called death.

    We inside our own spiritual soul self-know that we feel as though we are the center of our own universe of which we try to control. When one let’s go and let’s god then we are turning over our power to a higher control and we allow the force to work through us.

    This can be a deep spiritual awakening or re-awakening to the opening up of all our chakras which are the portals to our kundalini energy that drives our spiritual force up and down out spine.

    We shall desire to elect team leaders on earth who come to terms with their balance in their lives of positive and negative and allow the flow of energy of the higher power to lead them and their crews while on earth.

    Working with ET Spirit the Akashic Field – A Field to Let go and let God is a popular way to share in co-creation. We share this ET Spirit Community Online Guidebook with those who are true Lightworkers and Truthseekers of the Ascension Age. Ascension Universal Life Ministries are in an alliance with those who share in the Unity of us all, for us all. As above so below among our Ascension Avatar Master Metaphysicians, Clergy as our Ministers, Pastors, and Reverends, All other Metaphysicians,  Mystics, Oracles, Psychic Counselors, Prophets, Philosophers, Sages, Seers, Shaman, and all other titles as afforded by the Ascension Centers Organization, ACO, ACE Nonprofit Inc, ACE Metaphysical Institute, Universal Life Church,

    Ascension Universal Life Church as the AULC and more.

    More Later… in the future series of the Ascension Age.

    Ascension Universal Life Church

    We of the Ascension Masters now share with all those who desire to come together in ET spirit with those who are the Ascension Universal Life Masters and Members. We share with various non-denominational Universal Life and Unity Churches around the world.

    We live within our own ways of ascension culture and traditions to be expanded and explored. We believe we are all here on earth to expand consciousness and to share in what life has to offer to sustain both planet and species. We recognize we are here to both grow and maintain our planet and species. We share in knowing that we are expanding our ascension universal life awakened awareness of being conscious of who we are, what we are, why we are here, and where we go when we leave this planet.

    We share in the whole life living process of body-mind-spirit sharing the birth-life-death process together while here on the planet among humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

    We gather to provide spiritual and educational awareness. We share in ET seminars and a Divine Expo Conference annually to elect officers and to share in fellowship. We meet monthly for sharing and caring in our contributions to society and to share in fund raising campaigns and worthy causes.

    We contribute to the world as humanists and visionaries with our synthesis of ancient wisdoms and new though teachings.

    Rev. Theresa J Thurmond Morris

    1984-Houston Texas Gold Pyramid Ordination for the future creation of Ascension Centers – Hawaii (1990-1993) and alliance with real Ascension Universal Life Church or AULC. ACO Ascension Center Organization and ACE – Ace Folklife and ACE Nonprofit Inc.

    The Association Cooperation Ordinations (ACO)

    An Alliance was formed to honor the Unity way of life for spiritual metaphysical churches on earth with Reverend Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris to communicate the desires of the ET Spirit in this Ascension Age. Ascension Age was foretold in the Aquarian Age and New Age teachings and understandings of the new thought teachings.

    Many of the Esoteric and Metaphysical Teachings in books and in channels and clergy have foretold of this time of the coming again of the ET Spirit. Many master teachers are recognized of the writings of the past.

    Unity Church

    Not to be confused with the Unitarian Church, the Unification Church, or Unitarian theology in Christianity.

    Origin         1889

    Kansas City, Missouri, United States

    Unity, known informally as Unity Church, is a spiritual philosophical movement within the wider New Thought movement and is best known to many through its Daily Word devotional publication. It describes itself as a “positive, practical Christianity” which “teaches the effective daily application of the principles of Truth taught and exemplified by Jesus Christ” and promotes “a way of life that leads to health, prosperity, happiness, and peace of mind.”

    Unity operates several programs, including a prayer program called Silent Unity, the Unity Society of Practical Christianity, Unity School of Christianity, Unity Institute, the Office of Prayer Research, the Association of Unity Churches, and Unity House, the church’s publishing arm. The home of Unity is at Unity Village, Missouri, a suburb of Kansas City.

    It was founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1889 by Charles Fillmore (1854–1948) and Myrtle Fillmore (1845–1931) after Mrs. Fillmore had been cured of her tuberculosis, she believed, by spiritual healing. This resulted in the Fillmore’s studying spiritual healing, and being influenced by Emma Curtis Hopkins and Mary Baker Eddy (the founder of Christian Science).

    Unity School of Christianity, shares their insights through magazines, books, and pamphlets and through Silent Unity, a telephone and mail service that offered people help through prayer and counseling. This growth led to several moves within Kansas City, and eventually, after World War I, to the development of Unity Village, 15 miles from Kansas City. The movement was led, in part, after Charles Fillmore’s death, by the Fillmore’s’ sons and grandchildren.

    Overview of Unity

    Unity School of Christianity

    Unity describes itself as a worldwide Christian organization which teaches a positive approach to life, seeking to accept the good in all people and events. Unity began as a healing ministry and healing has continued to be its main emphasis for over 100 years. It teaches that all people can improve the quality of their lives through thought.

    Unity describes itself as having no particular creed, no set dogma, and no required ritual. It maintains that there is good in every approach to God and in every religion that is filling someone’s needs. Its position holds that one should not focus on past sins but on the potential good in all.

    Unity emphasizes spiritual healing, prosperity and practical Christianity in its teachings. Illness is considered to be curable by spiritual means, but Unity does not reject or resist medical treatments.

     It is an inclusive faith that welcomes diversity of belief. Unity is accepting of the beliefs of others.

    Churches fall under the auspices of Unity Worldwide Ministries although each church is autonomous in its practices.

    Basic teachings

    New Thought Beliefs

    Divinity

    Omnipresent God •

    Ultimate Spirit • none • Higher consciousness •

    Beliefs

    Law of attraction • Life force

    Actions

    Affirmations • Affirmative prayer • Creative visualization • Personal magnetism • Positive thinking

    Glossary

    Five basic ideas that Unity sets forward as its main belief system are:

    “God is the source and creator of all. There is no other enduring power. God is good and present everywhere.”

    “We are spiritual beings, created in God’s image. The spirit of God lives within each person; therefore, all people are inherently good.”

    “We create our life experiences through our way of thinking.”

    “There is power in affirmative prayer, which we believe increases our connection to God.”

    “Knowledge of these spiritual principles is not enough. We must live them.”

    Unity is devoted to demonstrating that the teachings of Jesus Christ can be lived every day. Unity’s basic position is that the true “Church” is a “state of consciousness in mankind.”

    Unity teaches that each person is a unique expression of God that each person is sacred, and each person is worthy. Unity emphasizes the creative power of thought in people’s experience, and encourages taking personal responsibility to choose life-affirming thoughts, words and actions, holding that when people do this, they experience a more fulfilling and abundant life.

    H. Emilie Cady’s 1896 book Lessons in Truth, A Course of Twelve Lessons in Practical Christianity is considered a core text of Unity.

    God

    God is understood as spiritual energy which is everywhere present and is available to all people. In the Unity view, God is not a being in the sky that is capable of anger. The presence of God only seeks to express the highest good through everyone and everything.

    According to Unity founder Charles Fillmore, God is spirit, the loving source of everything. God is one power, all good, and wisdom, everywhere present.

    God is Divine Energy, continually creating, expressing and sustaining all creation. In God we live and move and have our being.

    Jesus

    Unity proclaims the divinity of Jesus, but also proclaims that we are all children of God and share that divine potential. Unity believes that Jesus expressed his divine potential and sought to show others how to do the same. Unity sees Jesus as a master teacher of universal Truth and one who demonstrated the Way.

    Unity uses the term “Christ” to mean the divinity in all people. Jesus is the great example of the Christ in expression.

    The nature of humanity

    Unity teaches that we are individual, external expressions of God. Our essential nature is divine and therefore we are inherently good. Our purpose is to express our divine potential as demonstrated by Jesus. The more we awaken to our divine nature, the more fully God expresses in and through our lives.

     Salvation, in the Unity view, is found in conscious understanding of one’s innate divinity and then putting this knowledge into practice in everyday life.

    The Bible

    Unity founders, Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, studied the Bible as history and allegory. They interpreted it as a metaphysical representation of each soul’s evolutionary journey toward spiritual awakening. Unity understands the Bible as a complex collection of writings compiled over many centuries. The Bible is a valuable spiritual resource, but is understood as a reflection of the comprehension and inspiration of the writers and their times.

    Affirmative prayer

    Affirmative prayer is understood, in Unity, as the highest form of creative thought. It includes the release of negative thoughts and holding in mind statements of spiritual truth. Through meditation and prayer, we can experience the presence of God. Prayer and meditation heighten our awareness of truth and thereby transform our lives.

    Prayer is valuable not because it alters the circumstances and conditions of your life, but because it alters you.

    Unity teaches that it is helpful to pray with the belief that we have already received all that we need. In this view, through prayer the mind is renewed and the body transformed. The awareness that we are conscious creators of our lives has the power to make the bridge between the old Christianity where we are “sinners” to the new understanding that we are “learners.”

    The Unity school of Christianity holds that prayer is not a way to inform God of one’s troubles or to change God in any way, but rather, prayer is properly used to align with the power that is God.

    Relationship to Christianity

    Although Unity is not a traditional Christian teaching, the foundations are based on the teachings of Jesus and the Bible.

    Unity stresses its agreements, not differences, with Christians.

    It has been generally accepted that Jesus’ great works were miracles and that the power to do miracles was delegated to His immediate followers only. In recent years many of Jesus’ followers have inquired into His healing methods, and they have found that healing is based on universal mental and spiritual laws which anyone can utilize who will comply with the conditions involved in these laws.

    Unity considers itself to be a nonsectarian educational institution although Unity ministers do complete a prescribed program of courses and training. Due to the interdenominational nature of Unity, its influence extends beyond its membership.

    Notable members

    Well known persons affiliated with Unity include Betty White, Eleanor Powell, Wally Amos, Licensed Unity Teacher Ruth Warrick, Barbara Billingsley, Theodore Schneider, Erykah Badu, Matt Hoverman, author Victoria Moran, Patricia Neal, Holmes Osborne and Esther Williams

    In March 2008 Maya Angelou stated that she planned to spend part of the year studying at the Unity Church. In 2005 she attended a Unity Church service in Miami and decided that day to “go into a kind of religious school and study” on her 80th birthday.

    See also

    Universal Foundation for Better Living

    Universal Church and Ascension Universal Life Church of ACO Organization, ET Seminars, Divine Expo

    How to Social Network Metaphysics by Theresa J Morris

    Universal Life Church

    We are now a Universal Church. What do we mean when we say we are a Universal Church? We have churches all around the world. The sun never sets on the Universal Life Church. This is why we call it a Universal Church.

    We have, within this church, a very liberal type of religion, but, we also have conservative types of people. I have never met a person that disagrees with our doctrine. We feel that our doctrine is universal. I believe that every living person is a part of the Universal Life. When they become conscious that they are part of Universal Life, they will look for people like minded. We are sure that the Universal Life Church is the one church that satisfies the majority of people. We are now looking and studying to find a way that all people can come together and work for the good of all people.

    Rev. Kirby J. Hensley

    Founder

    1959-1999

    ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

    ET UFO Taken Up Story Assimilation Living Omnipresence in us All

     Where is the knowledge that the ET UFO Community supplies taking us? Why are we now being made aware of certain dates in time?

    What was so important about the dates 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 on earth?

    Will we all agree to share the same path as one humanoid sentient intelligent being species?

     What the future holds is now being created by each and every one of us.

    No one is more or less important than the other for it takes all of us to plan out that which is called

    The entire species of this planet. We all matter.

     Sharing the future and the past of one’s own life is like living two lives at the same time in the present.

    We can all remember and we all have memories that make up who we are on the inside and who we project to others on the outside of our own body-mind-spirits.

     Now that we are entering the Ascension Age of Enlightenment we can all now be allowed to grasp the

    photographic images that are now in the Web on the Internet. We can all reach that which in the past was only obtainable by those chosen of earth to be trained as the Avatar Ascension Masters.

    I believe that Most of our Avatar Masters of our past history on earth were all of the same creative

    Divine omnipotence that is in us all.

     We all have chosen our own way to think and believe. We may all share that thinking is not believing and vice versa. It is up to each and every one of us to learn to be who we believe we have been in the past and who we shall become in the future all at the same time that we are existing and living in the presence.

    For many whom think on various levels and travel in various dimensions while being able to return to this

    World this may seem an easy path. For others who are just now awakening to their entire capabilities as a sentient intelligent being as a humanoid, the capabilities of the spirit inside the mind inside the brain

    May have not been fully operational in the past due to the arrival on this planet and the veil of secrecy

    Still being down.

    It is time on earth that we all become awakened and aware of the shift and uplift of the entire human species on earth. After all, we are all made up of the same DNA and molecular process as humanoids which are said to have been first created by the omnipotent all that was in the beginning of the “WE” which we all now call the “I AM” in each of us. We are all now realizing that which those in our past ancestral heritage cultures and faiths closely resembling religions were trying to tell us. That we are all born of the omnipotent one or ones we call God and Goddess.

     For those who follow the ancient ancestors religions of the Adamic Origins in our history books and

    Our sacred scriptures and codex’s, we can share that there were stories kept that were passed down

    First orally and later written down from memory. This allowed for some stories to be lost throughout

    Time over the ages on this planet.

     It is now a time on earth for those of us who are becoming fully awake and aware to share our memories of all that has been in the past and will be again.

     We are the Ascension Masters on earth who have at one time or another ascended into space to become more than we are today as memories encoded into lifetimes we call humanoid sentient intelligent beings.

     Some of us are sharing our findings of that which we call the Age of Enlightenment that began December 21, 2012 at 11:11 on this planet.

    ET SPIRIT METAPHYSICIANS

    WE are they who have kept up with the ontology and metaphysical information that was left to be shared by others who came before to enlighten us up to a certain level in time where we could begin to use their life maps of the paths they chose while walking this planet.

    We are all important and that means that no one being is excluded from the critical mass mind.

    We all play a part in sharing that which was created for us all.

    We are all created to resemble various parts of the humanoid lifetimes and roles that have been played

    out before on this planet and on others while those who are considered much older and wiser and having lived longer than we have consider the best teaching tools for us to be sharing as our learned skills.

     We are all humanoids on a working class planet in space.

    We are all eternal as the old saying goes because we are all part of the omnipresence

    That is and was and has always been. This is as close to the reading information that

    We will get to know the source and force of all that is that has been described as the farthest

    Beyond outside of our own point of origins that we use on this planet as our own body-mind-spirits.

    We must get on with our future lives that we can describe as that of divine creation based on the

    Beginning whether we want to claim the basic level of last century as the Big Bang Theory or the

    Divine Creation Theory matters not any longer.

    We have to get over ourselves and get on with living in the world of discovery and exploration of

    What we have been provided.

    We are all on a pleasant journey inside the eternal outsource and force of the beginning, the middle,

    And the end of our own life stories.

     We are the way that each of us will be seen as recording that which we were sent here to record and

    Make better while here in this place, in this space, on this planet we call earth.

    We are all here on earth to perform a task of memory codes, and to become more than when we left our past lives with the use of our own essence as energy we call that of the original soul as the recalled

    Source and force in all of us that for now we call life eternal.

     Life eternal is that which goes on forever in one form or another as the energy of the essence that

    We all are cradled in as the part of the omnipotent omnivorous omnipresence.

    We all take into the mind that which is the all be it plant, animal, or mineral matters not for we are now

    Aware of the all in the everything.

     Therefore, we will now enter a realm of time on this planet when we shall discover how to process

    The request for knowing the Theory of Everything.

     We at the basic carbon level of existence still realize we came into this being as humanoids as

    Sentient intelligent beings whether we have been other than humanoid at this point in time matters not.

    We must now share with those of us who made it this far that we are now here on this planet as humanoids and not as plants, animals, or minerals. We are here now to share our lives in companionship and to make in the Omniverse more than it is now.

     Now, that we have begun the process in this twenty-first century on earth to explain that there are more than our young species on this planet with those who command the various sizes of ships in space we call UFOS and under the oceans and seas we call USOS we shall now begin to share in the awakened awareness that all exist for a purpose and a reason to expand our own conscious awareness of our species so that we can recognize how to grow into the next level and phase of our existence.

    We are now to share in the journey of life as we know it to exist while we learn to grown into that which

    Is in space. We are to learn to recognize the vast journey that we are given to travel into the outer levels

    Of our space given journeys and learn to leave this part of our lives on this planet.

    It is time to journey into space and travel our galaxy among the galactic federation of galaxies.

    We shall then learn to travel outside the galactic levels into the far reaching nebulas and out toward

    The walls of the universe.

     The universe will then be explored as we explain that which in the past for those who came before

    May have forgotten and that was that those from the heavens came and will come again.

     We will share the future with other humanoids in space that will teach us to travel out beyond which

    We in the past explored with ancient ancestors.

     We will now learn to leave this planet and learn to travel out towards the various levels

    That exists in this Universe, in other levels and dimensions in the Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse,

    Omniverse. Alphaverse and Omegaverse.

    We share the Seven Levels (Heavens) of our Existence in the cosmos:

    1.    Universe, 2. Multiverse, 3. Metaverse, 4. Xenoverse, 5. Omniverse, 6. Alphaverse, 7. Omegaverse.

    This is now our quest to learn to accept space travel as part of our own spiritual journeys that are

    Being shared while we are here in body-mind-spirit forms. We all are to share in birth-life-death experiences which we use to accomplish our own personal definition, growth, and expansion. We need to not only grow and maintain to survive but to share and have in order to maintain our survival in the entire macrocosm we call the Omniverse. The Supreme High Counsel oversees and does not interfere in individual free agency.

     We will then learn what it is like to experience the afterlife as our ancestors have and defy that which

    We once only thought were myths and legends on this planet in Love and Light.

    Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

    Aliens Ascension Age Core Values – Tectonic Economics

    Artistic Values – Tectonic Economics of the Ascension Age

    ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

    Promotes Health & Prosperity For All!

    Ascension

    Intelligence Summit

    For Healthy debates breed creative solutions.

     Andromeda Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit -

    Alliance WITH THE

    Milky Way Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit

    Galactic Federation in Alliance with Andromeda Galaxy

    Artistic Values of our Human Species.

     Artistic Values are also called aesthetic Values. These express pleasure with a person or object.

     Artistic Values address the importance of rich values of great importance.

     There may be beauty, good taste, symmetry, and the opposites.

     We all hold civilized judgments. As civilized people, we call fall subject to the “ALL” species as the “Critical Mass Mind”.

     In our infinite wisdom we all share around the world our collective involvement in the preservation of our art, literature and music. With these four creations we all express our own taste with or without proper training with complimentary skill concepts.

     Artistic values are often brought into play in forensic events even if only indirectly.

     For instance; building all cars for fossilized fuel consumption we were not anticipating the future intent

    of depleting our fuel resources. Therefore, we are now dealing with alternate fuel sources such as electricity for our automobiles and trains along with other transportation equipment needs.

     We may experience betrayal and half-truths of what we now consider covert affairs in the ET UFO Community and we desire to have full disclosure of what all our governments around the world have chosen to keep covert and not disclosed to the public.

     We have decided that it is no longer in our best interest to keep the information regarding aliens and UFOS and USOS under the secret need to know only cooperation of all foreign and domestic affairs.

     When the UFOs of aliens are already in the minds and efforts of the general public this will affect the

    Critical mass mind and what we now also call the global brain of the entire global community.

     If everyone is experiencing change and acceptance for the entire world as mysteries of the mystical spot

    We may regard the future global brain as that which we may experience as serendipity.

     This means that many people begin using the same energy and getting the same ideas from that of the “Global Brain” or the critical mass mind which drives the entire force and power of the essence we call the Energy Grid in space and on the planet earth in the vibrations and sound waves we can all receive.

     This allows people to receive unlimited thoughts for change and for the imagination to work at its best

    With the overall intent of making the world a better place to live for all.

     Free will is without equal on this planet and in space among all the humanoid sentient intelligent being

    Species. The energy of freewill is without equal and is out chosen essence for the creation and of the

    Creation of the “ALL” in the “I AM” of each of us.

    One might say that our free will of life is what is inside each of our minds and the essential driving force

    In all of us which is the power of our origin we call God/Goddess as the source of all creations or as that

    Which is represented as the “ALL” and the “NATURE’S GOD”.

     Nature’s God also is involved with the environmental protection which is most important for the entire planet and species to survive. This is why our ancestors all were in tune and engrained with the story of all that came from space and when we all think of the creator we always think above and vertical as up in space.

    Meaning just about all tribes of people on the earth will raise their finger and point to the sky when asked where we come from or where God is located. This is essential to the understanding of our fellow humankind on the planet we call earth. We are all living here and we call ourselves earthlings in space.

    This word separates all of us from others who are of the same humanoid species just from other planets in other galaxies in space.

     Freedom of Speech is accepted and yet we are all taught to be humble and act as Goodwill Ambassadors for our own specific cultures and planets. This freedom of speech by all can be more important than the foreign national model of national security. We must all learn when to speak and when to listen and when it is time to join into a conversation about the participation in the future of humanity on all planets to be inhabited in the future.

     We are now earthlings who will be invited into a planetary conversation about the Galactic Federation and what we can expect to become in the near future over the next fifty years.

     We are to be personal and share our professional skills. We shall share our desires, motivations, talents and hope that our usual greed of our species does not come into play.

     We are in the First Year of Contact and our own President of the United State is to be tested.

    This is done as is the same set of values and rules that are understood as informal. The world we know still has gun runners, terrorist’s cells, and other hoodlums that are to be told how to become future community citizens of space. We must teach them and instruct them in the proper way to share time on earth with other citizens of this planet earth.

     We know that the past has been about policing those who did not fit into society and may have done horrible deeds such as killing and murder of another being on the planet. Those who inflict harm on themselves or other beings must be taught how the mind works and what is expected on a working class planet.

    This is why we always begin teaching all children from the early age of two years old by professionals who are engaged in the planetary instruction for the entire Galactic Federation.

     In the past all those in power have been accustomed to secrecy of the conversations held among those who are of the celestial realm or from space.

     We now assist in the investigations of all beings no matter what the demographics and logistics.

    We can utilize the satellites from above for policing the entire planet. Sleeper cells in the world are

    Always suspected. We have global concerns for planetary security.

     Scanning all public geographical locations in the future will be part of our casing places for anyone who

    May pose a threat to harm themselves or others. We are going to share in the future policing of the planet in public places as well as in our local communities at the town, city, region, and state levels.

    Then we shall address those in charge of each tectonic place on the plates that travel on the surface of the planet. We understand that there are already names given for the Tectonic Plates and we can abide by the use of the names already used and in place.

     Value judgments are highly elevated and relevant due to our curiosity. Intelligence relationships are delicate.

    We share that when one agency on earth decides to participate in value judgments in the intelligence community it has already shared in the discussion and debate in their own internal operations before their own final vote of what is to be presented as a proposal is voted on in their own tribe and community.

     The final vote for the entire planet after close discussion and debate is given on each Tectonic Plate as this will be how the future of the planet will be divided up for equal votes based on supply and demand and the entire population count on the planet based on the demographics and logistics of the Tectonic Plates.

     When one agency of a Tectonic Plate Origin is chosen to represent the population on that particular plate we can then share other levels of living within the global commerce that is presently called world trade and commerce one earth. This is to specify a policy change for the Tectonic Plate due to the needs of the many with a representative we shall call the Director of Chief Agent who has been voted in as the spokesperson for that particular Tectonic Plate Division on Earth.

     To specify policy change in a species that deals with the past generations decisions may become enhanced in the future due to the needed upgrades for today’s modern time’s one earth. The new upgrades were scripted and talked about on earth in the past by who others on earth now realize were their own ancestors from space and brought here to the planet earth.

     Our success in forensics of our species was enhanced by understanding the nature of our needs by well qualified decision makers who are called the Supreme Allied Council. We have the Galactic Federation of Twelve elected officials who oversee the galaxies and all the space fleets who actually secure the territories.

     The Galactic Federation in turn answers to the Supreme Allied Council above for this universe and all others.

    The Universe has then a Higher Council that answers to the level of the Fifth Dimension and so on and so forth on up the chain of command in the Omniverse.

     This is how it has always been done by our forefathers and ancestors in space who are called the humanoids as the sentient intelligent being species. We have empires in space.

    When relevant values of conflict in nature occur we assess our priorities which have been determined in the past to save our lives and the role of value judgments gives rise to opulence and ultra-Nuevo of those who are elevated due to their longevity in space and in time.

    We have those who are of the game of life affairs in the past and some of these would give rise to romance in our cultures of proliferation. We have come to question our feelings and all want to benefit from the survival of our species without causing undue concern and stress of the emotional nature of humanoids.

     We all have emotions and feelings as humanoids this is obvious. However we desire to become more diplomatic as ambassadors of goodwill among all our humanoids species and honor the cultural traditions of all planets.

    We shall learn what we can all benefit from sharing that we all must have both male and female interaction of our species in order to survive.

    Therefore we must vouch and concur to concede to our friends and relations and use social networking and friendly interactions with all humanoid species of both male and female of the species regardless of looks and desires. We must learn to upstream our permanency in the galaxies and in the universes.

    We must intercede that the procreation of all humanoids as sentient intelligent beings is a permanent

    Arrangement in space.

     From there we have decided to discuss among all planets humanoids hot to maintain the survival of all our humanoid clans as one species among all galaxies among all universes in space.

    This term of policy originated from the ancient Greeks word POLIC, or CITY, and is the same route

    Word in space. We use the word polis that leads to the English words police, politics, and metropolis in space. We use the same terms and these are now universal and Multiverse in terms in the Omniverse.

     Some may still object to the universal authority which is made of women or females as well as men and males. It is obvious that we must not disregard this as an old spirit of the ancients that were full of spite and jealousy. We have learned about these petty emotions and feel that those on earth can rise above these ancient ways and terms of all our ancestors.

     We must advance our specie and learn to operate as teams of both the male and female of all the galaxy tribes of our species of humanoids.

     We shall learn to congregate and communicate with honor and share our morals as ambassadors of goodwill for we will be seen by those who are not bionic but may resemble humanoids yet have no soul.

     Therefore in the future, the world will require that the local, states, regions include the entire

    Federal laws and legislatures passing policies that are created in administrative branches of government

    That deal with the breaches in society.

     Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

     The foreign transactions for the few and for the plenty in the all have the alien needs and alien alliances

    Which will edify and affect the entire future of the Galaxy Federation in Space? Our foreign alien alliances

    Include the earth and earthlings now as our guests in space due to the young beings who have been nurtured and created on the working class planet called earth.

     We have come to repair the change sin in everything in the future.

    The future is always and forever and those who have been on earth were told that

    We would come and share and repair the eternal forever which is a long time to remember and some who have been born in the last few thousand years have forgotten.

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit – Earth Tectonic Economics

     We have Current Tectonic Plates on Earth that will share in the future Geographic Power Status.

    We all care about health and prosperity and job sustainability for a working class planet is crucial

    To the survival of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species. Therefore, there is a new development in a rather old regime that is based upon our ancient civilizations past history with our new and modern technological welfare for the entire planet’s sustainability based on geographics and logistics.

     In the academic working world in education and the making of future doctors in philosophy or Ph.D.’s,

    We will need more categories in the future in order to work in Tectonic Economics and Global Sustainability dealing in feeding the entire population of our 7 billion plus point.

    It is said that we are working towards change to begin with the next presidential election scheduled

    In the United States of America the main global power of the working class planet at the present time.

    However, without the future being decided at the working class level with jobs and sustainability for all including health and welfare issues it is unlikely that the power can be sustained at the nation level.

    Therefore the future will lie with more integrated leaders with the United Nations for the entire Global

    Economy. The future is at stake and there are those in the entire global populace that realize the entire

    Humanoid species relies on work.

     The working class planet is made up of the working class people as the majority. This must be taken into

    Account when figuring out the future of humankind on earth. Sustainability issues include the following:

    1.

    First with “Water” as the main concern of humankind.

    2.

    Second is “Oxygen “or the other way around.

    3.

    Third is “Food “and the

    4.

    Fourth is “Clothing”.

    5.

                                      Fifth is “Shelter”

        Animal Shelter

    & Health for ALL including Animals, plants, Humanoids, Minerals

    Although the Fifth and

    6.

    Sixth this is “Shelter”; include work, skills, and talents for jobs.

    Spacecraft on Earth

    7.

    And Seventh is “Communication”.

    8.

    Eighth is “Prosperity”

    Work & Monetary Gain – Prosperity

    All the others Eighth and

    9.

    Ninth including “Transportation” to and from “Work” and for

    “Communication” purposes

    Is taken into account with the important “Education” to accomplish all of the

    “NINE” working class requirements. While Tenth is Faith Based

    10.

    Tenth is “Faith”

    The entire world’s population is based on this and then comes

    11.

    Eleventh is “Security”

    of all of the “TEN REQUIRED COMMANDMENTS” in order to sustain

    A working class planet.

    12.

    Twelfth is “Acknowledgement”

    In Global Tectonic Economics,

    Global Tectonic Economics takes in all twelve for the desires of the Higher Council and the Supreme Beings as the higher Beings above. That are said to be the best way to view the earth from space as extraterrestrial in origin share their “Bird’s Eye View from Above on how to govern the planet while in the Working Class Planet

    Status.”

     As Above So Below…

    ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

    ET UFO Taken Up Story Assimilation Living Omnipresence in us All

     Where is the knowledge that the ET UFO Community supplies taking us? Why are we now being made aware of certain dates in time?

    What was so important about the dates 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 on earth?

    Will we all agree to share the same path as one humanoid sentient intelligent being species?

     What the future holds is now being created by each and every one of us.

    No one is more or less important than the other for it takes all of us to plan out that which is called

    The entire species of this planet. We all matter.

     Sharing the future and the past of one’s own life is like living two lives at the same time in the present.

    We can all remember and we all have memories that make up who we are on the inside and who we project to others on the outside of our own body-mind-spirits.

     Now that we are entering the Ascension Age of Enlightenment we can all now be allowed to grasp the

    Photographic images that are now in the Web on the Internet. We can all reach that which in the past was only obtainable by those chosen of earth to be trained as the Avatar Ascension Masters.

    I believe that Most of our Avatar Masters of our past history on earth were all of the same creative

    Divine omnipotence that is in us all.

     We all have chosen our own way to think and believe. We may all share that thinking is not believing and vice versa. It is up to each and every one of us to learn to be who we believe we have been in the past and who we shall become in the future all at the same time that we are existing and living in the presence.

    For many whom think on various levels and travel in various dimensions while being able to return to this

    World this may seem an easy path. For others who are just now awakening to their entire capabilities as a sentient intelligent being as a humanoid, the capabilities of the spirit inside the mind inside the brain

    May have not been fully operational in the past due to the arrival on this planet and the veil of secrecy

    Still being down.

    It is time on earth that we all become awakened and aware of the shift and uplift of the entire human species on earth. After all, we are all made up of the same DNA and molecular process as humanoids which are said to have been first created by the omnipotent all that was in the beginning of the “WE” which we all now call the “I AM” in each of us. We are all now realizing that which those in our past ancestral heritage cultures and faiths closely resembling religions were trying to tell us. That we are all born of the omnipotent one or ones we call God and Goddess.

     For those who follow the ancient ancestors religions of the Adamic Origins in our history books and

    Our sacred scriptures and codex’s, we can share that there were stories kept that were passed down

    First orally and later written down from memory. This allowed for some stories to be lost throughout

    Time over the ages on this planet.

     It is now a time on earth for those of us who are becoming fully awake and aware to share our memories of all that has been in the past and will be again.

     We are the Ascension Masters on earth who have at one time or another ascended into space to become more than we are today as memories encoded into lifetimes we call humanoid sentient intelligent beings.

     Some of us are sharing our findings of that which we call the Age of Enlightenment that began December 21, 2012 at 11:11 on this planet. We are they who have kept up with the ontology and metaphysical information that was left to be shared by others who came before to enlighten us up to a certain level in time where we could begin to use their life maps of the paths they chose while walking this planet.

    We are all important and that means that no one being is excluded from the critical mass mind.

    We all play a part in sharing that which was created for us all.

    We are all created to resemble various parts of the humanoid lifetimes and roles that have been played

    out before on this planet and on others while those who are considered much older and wiser and having lived longer than we have consider the best teaching tools for us to be sharing as our learned skills.

     We are all humanoids on a working class planet in space.

    We are all eternal as the old saying goes because we are all part of the omnipresence

    That is and was and has always been. This is as close to the reading information that

    We will get to know the source and force of all that is that has been described as the farthest

    Beyond outside of our own point of origins that we use on this planet as our own body-mind-spirits.

    We must get on with our future lives that we can describe as that of divine creation based on the

    Beginning whether we want to claim the basic level of last century as the Big Bang Theory or the

    Divine Creation Theory matters not any longer.

    We have to get over ourselves and get on with living in the world of discovery and exploration of

    What we have been provided.

    We are all on a pleasant journey inside the eternal outsource and force of the beginning, the middle,

    And the end of our own life stories.

     We are the way that each of us will be seen as recording that which we were sent here to record and

    Make better while here in this place, in this space, on this planet we call earth.

    We are all here on earth to perform a task of memory codes, and to become more than when we left our past lives with the use of our own essence as energy we call that of the original soul as the recalled

    Source and force in all of us that for now we call life eternal.

     Life eternal is that which goes on forever in one form or another as the energy of the essence that

    We all are cradled in as the part of the omnipotent omnivorous omnipresence.

    We all take into the mind that which is the all be it plant, animal, or mineral matters not for we are now

    Aware of the all in the everything.

     Therefore, we will now enter a realm of time on this planet when we shall discover how to process

    The request for knowing the Theory of Everything.

     We at the basic carbon level of existence still realize we came into this being as humanoids as

    Sentient intelligent beings whether we have been other than humanoid at this point in time matters not.

    We must now share with those of us who made it this far that we are now here on this planet as humanoids and not as plants, animals, or minerals. We are here now to share our lives in companionship and to make in the Omniverse more than it is now.

     Now, that we have begun the process in this twenty-first century on earth to explain that there are more than our young species on this planet with those who command the various sizes of ships in space we call UFOS and under the oceans and seas we call USOS we shall now begin to share in the awakened awareness that all exist for a purpose and a reason to expand our own conscious awareness of our species so that we can recognize how to grow into the next level and phase of our existence.

    We are now to share in the journey of life as we know it to exist while we learn to grown into that which

    Is in space. We are to learn to recognize the vast journey that we are given to travel into the outer levels

    Of our space given journeys and learn to leave this part of our lives on this planet.

    It is time to journey into space and travels our galaxy among the galactic federation of galaxies.

    We shall then learn to travel outside the galactic levels into the far reaching nebulas and out toward

    The walls of the universe.

     The universe will then be explored as we explain that which in the past for those who came before

    May have forgotten and that was that those from the heavens came and will come again.

     We will share the future with other humanoids in space that will teach us to travel out beyond which

    We in the past explored with ancient ancestors.

     We will now learn to leave this planet and learn to travel out towards the various levels

    That exists in this universe, in other levels and dimensions in the Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse,

    Omniverse. Alphaverse and Omegaverse.

    This is now our quest to learn to accept space travel as part of our own spiritual journeys that are

    Being shared while we are here in the body-mind-spirit forms to share in the birth-life-death experiences which we use to accomplish that which we need to have in order to maintain our survival in the entire macrocosm we call the Omniverse.

     We will then learn what it is like to experience the afterlife as our ancestors have and defy that which

    We once only thought were myths and legends on this planet in Love and Light.

    Evidence of imminent Invasion by Alien ET UFOs

    World Information Network (WIN) Psychic Souls Information and TJ Morris Psychic.NET. The Evidence of Alien ET Invasion is Everywhere.

    WE ARE NOW INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA WITH OUR SEARCHES ON OUR COMPUTERS IN THE WORLD WIDE WEB! – WE OF THE PSYCHIC AKASHIC FIELD HAVE BEEN DOING THIS FOR YEARS! IT IS TIME TO ALLOW EVERYONE IN THE WORLD TO CATCH UP USING THE WEB ON THE INTERNET.

     I am writing an article to celebrate the fourth anniversary with Dirk and Robert on UFO Digest.com. It will tell of one of my deepest secrets that are dear to my heart and soul. I will tell how one of my secrets confirms to me that we are never alone on this planet. Alien Civilizations exist and come and go as they please or are sent to share in the creative design of the entire humanoid species in the omniverse. Most know that I share the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse for the fifth dimension we share in this omniverse.

     Extragalactic means that we are located or originated beyond the Galaxy!

     I was once approached by an ET meaning an Extragalactic Being. The story I am about to share has taken me almost forty two years to share with the working world. Because of our new technology on this planet which we call the Internet Online and the WEB, I can now reach the world and allow my story to be joined with others who have had the same experience. Some have already come forth with their various experiences and because I have had so many based on who I am and how much I am allowed to know and experience on many levels it may appear that my lifetimes and my life experiences are just too impossible for anyone being to experience and know so much in one lifetime. So, please remember that the person telling this story has had many lifetimes and has been allowed to live and die and live and die again twice in this one lifetime in this one body. Also, that I have been allowed to know of my past eight lives prior to this one. All of the awakened awareness makes a difference in how much one’s own emotional and mental body can handle in one lifetime.  I shall share my story of all the alien ET contact to allow others to see just how we are blended in to the entire humanoid species in space for the first time on earth. I have ET SECRETS! TJ

     We can now begin our filtering and clustering in our organizations and at our EXPOS around the world.  Most all have accepted FACEBOOK and TWITTER AROUND THE WORLD. TJ MORRIS is also known as Theresa J Thurmond Morris – Event Organizer – Planner – Guide – Speaker – Hostess at Expos, Fairs and Conferences that cover Body Mind Spirit, Wellness, Holistic Health, Sustainability, Green Living, Organics, Conscious Living, Natural Healing, New Age, Metaphysics, Whole Foods, Psychics and Spirituality for over 21 years.

    We who are considered Alien ET Hybrids are called Walk-Ins to some of the old Baby boomers (1946-1966). Then comes those we call the Lightworkers and the Younger or Second Wave of Lightworkers before we begin counting the Indigos. Depends on who one asks as to when one generation begins and the other ends. Just like we all have our ideas of what will happen in the Ascension Age beginning 12-21-12 that is simply called the Golden Age to all those of the old NEW AGE movement that want peace on this planet. The future will deal with the new spirits coming to earth now and sharing in the Divine Expo. This conference will develop a Global Think Tank. Twenty experts in Science, Technology, Space Engineering, Cosmology, and Spirituality coming together in a Whole Life Living Divine Consciousness Conference.

    We are integrating some of our variations of the spiritual theme dealing with that which in the past was only thought of as scientific. We must now all become spiritual intellectuals over the next era in time.  This information to a member named ED can now be seen shared by all. I hope it is information that is helpful.

    Hi ED:

    Thank you for your kind emails and asking me to be your MENTOR in the years to come. Conferences I have assisted in the past all dealt with my personal interests. Now the Computer Social Media and Marketing on Computers has my interest since this is now my tool of choice for communication efforts… I realize you are only 21 years old and your father is a preacher.

    I train many prophets, teachers, mystics in this world. This is part of the great awakening.

    Hi my new friend. You may join me on Facebook under many of the pages I have. Choose one. You said you are most drawn to the ETSpirit.Org then that should be the one you join and become a writer for to train your spirit energy.

    You asked me a few questions that I am sure others would like answered as well. The way I work I was taught to allow each person only three (3) Questions because there are so many beings on earth close to seven (7) billion which is the cut off time and why those who are in tune now with the astral vibrations and known astronomy and astrology are learning that the stars and planets are much older than what is taught in schools. Much of each harvest time for the masters is wiped out on the planet and new souls begin training again on this planet.

    I am adding some information I have never come forth before and explained because it wasn’t time. I had to wait until the season was upon us. There is a time and season for all of us in our training and education on earth. I have just been allowed to begin the future with the Planet Information Network and the World Information Network which window was opened in 1990 in Hawaii.  We have portals in time. I worked with one window for forty earth years. Space Portals are real and some are beginning to appear around the world. Some will appear as the veil is thin like towns and mirages that were not previously in the same space on this planet. This will confuse the masses.

    This is how in past civilizations there has come to be interested in magic and religions to many. The time to see things that could not be understood in real time because virtual time and space in the same place was not understood or comprehended. It is my understanding in all my nine (9) lives that this was part of why we have people like me come who are trained in various levels to use our minds in various ways to assist others. We are called Avatar Ascension Masters and to some they call us Time Lords because of our coming and going on this planet in various ways. Some of us use our skills we are taught in the other world. It is like Quantum Physics. We can use our minds to be in two places simultaneously. Some want to know the various levels and I have taught them in the last century. I shall begin to teach those who find their way to me.

    My first memories are rather sketchy but the main ones I can remember are as real to me as today is. I was the only child so I had to be less than three years of age. I can remember playing with one in particular which has an impact on other spiritual souls therefor called   impacular which is a term for an intergalactic soul. We are all intergalactic and now we will begin to share ourselves that way on this planet. I am told to now create the Planet Information Network.com. I was given the Ascension Center.Org name in 1990 to allow for our growth on this planet with those who would impact change.

    I cannot tell you all the words for in this world they are hard to sound out. It is like learning a new language without the proper vocal chords so most of those I know use something similar to ESP>. He was a boy child ET and he could come and go like a hologram. I believe I was trained by him with ESP for the first time before reaching 3. It could have been at 2 because I knew him for a long time and remember very certainly when my physical earth mother left him in the house. I have vivid memories of Mother not letting him go with us on trips in the car.  She would allow me to stand in the back seat of the car and I as of average height as a child. My guess is that the alien ET UFO ship which is what we call them on earth which stayed hidden in the white clouds above on sunny days or did not have to materialize due to stealth mode which I will have to explain much later because of patent implications for governments… ,

    There are minerals used like Fe2O3 in Iron to ground or separate that which is from other galaxies and planets. Not all planets have the same minerals in space. Then we are taught about that which makes us more astral as in the air and can float. This entails ingredients such as those as a form of static electricity and magnetism and without a quantum engineering theorist able to think with both lobed of the brain at once it is very hard to share words. This deals with matter and anti-matter. This is why many of us were trained in space and on the planet. We will share the next 100 years learning how to become travelers in space and creating the future.

    I have a way to train others and I am preparing the way now for the spiritual intellectuals who desire to share my spiritual journey on this planet while I can still walk the earth…

    We were trained from the time we are born. It is told to us that our DNA is enhanced. I had to go to Long Island -Montauk Point in 1969-1972 in this lifetime and some trained as I did. I understand Andre Basiago was one of the boys that trained with me. He doesn’t know me in this lifetime but I know him. Some girls were kept separate. We were not supposed to be known and the man was not from earth and was very tall slim and had dark hair and had ESP and a German or Swiss accent. Then my husband’s father only did what he was told to do. I do not blame him since he as passed on to the other world now. I was always most agreeable as a child because it was fun! There was a lot of love for children like me on board the craft. I was taught how to talk with my mind to the little people who looked like short Japanese people to me with slanted eyes and had a light yellow cast. Some had grey and some had a light blue almost a green. I guess that was where the green alien terms in pop culture in marketing items became so popular. Well, I will tell you much later in your training about them. ..

    For now you just know that I have much training and I can only teach those who ask for it and when it is said in the old days one’s belly is full. Those above who are over those of us as Avatar Ascension Masters in this program have seen many of our humanoid kind go insane because they cannot handle too much change in the design of their thoughts and materialized world. This is why through the last 9000 earth years we have only chosen people who have had their DNA enhanced over generations on this planet. We are all stardust and from space so we are all the same it is just that some of us are at longer life  cycle and levels and dimensions like we now use in computer games to teach.

    I called this hologram Cleo. Not LEO. Mother was amazed at my friend because she could never see him but she soon learned how important he was and asked me why she could not see him. I told her he didn’t like grown-ups because every time she would come into my room he would disappear. Mother told many people later about my friend.

    He told me it was because adults didn’t believe. That is where the fairy stories came from. Those who don’t believe cannot conceive! Makes sense when the mind thinks about it logically. Reasoning is a part of the grounding process. Our minds can become static with electricity and we become ungrounded. That is why we insist on learning the chakras on this planet and then we take them to the higher levels after astral travel for beginners. Who too much information in this one lesson for you. I apologize if I go too fast – your mind may not accept what I tell you if I share too much. We teach in small quantities because of what I told you about this reality and it has to do with virtual reality at the same time. IT is like energy that can be in two places at once in quantum physics. I can share more later on various topics dealing with the ancient mystery schools and now how we prepare the future with the combination of the old terms and the new terms. Also we will use the internet and the web.

    Michio Kaku shares some of the basics for beginners. I listened to him a few nights on television and he has the right ideas and concepts I will just have to assist once they get past the string theory and the multiverse in time and space.

    Anyway, back to my story and how I began or how I first remember them appearing to me. In various times when I was very ill they came to comfort and heal me .I learned a little each visit through the years myself. They visit in physical form as I became an adult. Then I saw some and I cannot admit or deny some worked with the government but I suspect so. I have my reasons and in an adult seminar with metaphysical believers who have done their homework I may teach this once again. It feels that it is time to begin once again – After 11-11-11 another portal in time opens up and I can begin choosing those I want to train that s say they want to be such as yourself. I have a whole life as proof that alien civilizations and people as humanoids in various sizes exist. Even in hues of skin. We are still all the same. Never let the color of one’s skin bother you. That is one of the basic lessons on earth. If people can’t get beyond something that is simple and they can see it will be very hard for them to learn with what is termed a prejudice mind.

    In the later years as a child there was a movie with an actor named Jimmy Stewart who had a friend that was a tall white rabbit. It would make me very upset when mother would tell her friends about that movie and compare my alien ET friend to him. They weren’t the same at all. So, this was when I learned about holograms as a child and then when they could also touch objects and make them move. This was how they taught me about telekinesis.

    Ed. You know how you asked if we could still write to each other and that you would need a MENTOR? Well, may I use your email to me to begin my ARTICLE for my WEBSITES and for UFO Digest?

    The reason being, usually when people write me if they asked an important question to me and it isn’t about them, I put this question over in the category that other humanoids on the planet

    I first began having memories. Then I went on a ride in the sky when I was a little girl and was brought back to an open field just down from my house. It was next to the neighbors. I was missing and my mother sent for my Aunt and Uncle and her mother to look for me. She had my little sister in the house who was a baby. I was about 3 and 1 /2 almost 4.

    Then I went to White Sands, New Mexico when I was about 8 almost 9. I had just completed third grade and would be in the fourth.

    The Spirit People as White Ghosts had appeared to me when I died the first time in the second grade when I had hepatitis A. I got it the last reporting period of the second grade. I had to have my homework brought to the hospital and to home and then the summer was out. Then they appeared to me in the alien ET UFOS.

    The time when I visited with Indians and a healing of the spirit and as a walk-in in was done in a teepee tent with a shaman and smoke. This was performed when I went to White Sands, New Mexico with that same Aunt Vella and Uncle Rufus Henry with my grandmother Esther Sarah Richman Bolton.

    I was also taken to White Sands up in an Alien ET UFO then but I don’t tell people because the stories always scared the daylights out of those who I chose to confide in. My grandmother told me to never tell anyone again about the people in the ET UFOS. My other Uncle actually worked in the Los Alamos Missile Range and another worked with the ET UFO underground. I went there the summer I was out of the third grade and would begin fourth grade at Ransom Elementary in West Monroe, La.

    I had many visitations and sometimes my mother would not know where I was. They didn’t take long though. When we train in school in space time is not the same. There it goes by the same it does on earth but when we return we are only missing 13 minutes. They cannot put back those 13 minutes and I don’t know why. Not sure anyone of my kind in space know.

    The life I lead in space as a grown humanoid is not the same one I lived as a child there. Now I am a full-fledged Commander and I have my own fleet. I can report in as a physical or so it seems to me there. It is like we are in the Hologram Fifth Dimension and to us here we can only take a part of us. We all have various parts, levels, dimensions, and personalities. It is apparent to those who I train as the Sages, Seers, Shaman, Mystics, and Oracles here on earth.

    MESSAGE:

    For those who have trained most all their lived in the Metaphysical Mystery Schools their minds can read various levels of a person’s aura as mine can. Many believe that we only have colors in our auras and in our chakras which they believe are only 7. There are actually 13 on earth.

    There are 34 in all but in this Omniverse we only use 33 for space travel. We have also after we ascribe and learn about the 13 and 33 we can teach about the multiverses which we also share in the met averse, Xenoverse, and Omniverse. We start with our own simply microcosm inside our brains. This is inside or unit or vessel we call a body-mind-spirit. Then we learn we can utilize both our inner being and our outer being or what people call our intrinsic and extrinsic which seems as if we did not inherit it. This will seem like we are Extragalactic beings when actually that is what I am here to teach to those who are at the level to learn.

     A universal message to those who are receivers follows. There are the NINE (9). Each has a purpose and work together as a team. No one knows all nine who holds the key to the thirteen (13) and the (7) seals and levels.  There are also 13 crystal skulls as symbolic representation of that which will be taught on earth. There are also crop circles or signs and symbols used for communication purposes by the most intelligent ones to learn with computers their meaning. One will learn that in thousands of years they used symbols on cave drawings with animals to mark the stars and this was also a calendar to mark when the nine and the 13 return. We make it a gradual concept in design between worlds of reality and virtual which is what words are chosen in this time. Senders and Receivers and our Avatar Ascended Masters do both.

    MANY LEARN TO CHANNEL AND SOME RECEIVE THE SAME MESSAGE FROM THEIR HIGHER CONSCIOUSNESS AND OTHERS FROM THEIR GUIDES AND SERAPH.

    Some are serving the Masters of the Supreme Beings and some have callings as the Galactic Council. I have heard of many levels of Channels and Psychic Trance Mediums.

    Many of us also use automatic writing too! I do and always have since I was a child. THERE ARE MANY BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS AND CLASSES IN GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS ONLINE. I use to TEACH CLASSES IN HAWAII LAST CENTURY. I ALSO HAVE FRIENDS WHO ENJOY SHARING THEIR PAST LIVES> It depends on each individual what they desire to share about their soul journey here on this plane and planet. We all grow and the path seems long to some and short to others – time travel is now being taught and some engineers are learning to share the spiritual side of energy since everything is energy nowadays or so it is said and shared. When the words begin then many of us share the same messages around the world the higher we go on the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge. I have actually heard Trance Channels begin and seen others begin to mimic the message while their eyes are closed and one did not know what the other would channel and it was not rehearsed it was spontaneous like musicians playing jazz and knowing the same chords. The more one knows and goes up the ladder of spiritual intelligence the more one realizes they do not know about the soul. It should be the quest of each and every individual to get to know their own soul’s journey. This is a way for us to learn of each other as we pass like ships in the night. We can also choose to share the long voyage in groups on this endless see of time we call eternity! TJ

    You can see how human ability is offset by the desire for happiness, peace and security, how people’s vision and ability to know are hampered by influences even within their own cultures. How much greater these influences will be within a Greater Community environment.

    This is the message that must be said, the truth that must be spoken, and the truth that is vital and cannot wait. It is so necessary for people now to learn a greater Knowledge, a greater Wisdom and a greater Spirituality so that they may find their true abilities and be able to use them effectively.

    FREEDOM

    Your freedom is at stake.

    The future of your world is at stake.

    It is because of this that we have been sent here to speak for the Allies of Humanity.

    KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM

    There are those in the universe who are keeping Knowledge and Wisdom alive and who practice a Greater Community Spirituality.

    They do not travel all about, casting influence over different worlds.

    They do not take people against their will.

    They do not steal your animals and your plants.

    They do not cast influence over your governments.

    They do not seek to breed with humanity in order to create a new leadership here.

    Your allies do not seek to interfere in human affairs.

    They do not seek to manipulate human destiny.

    WATCHERS OF THE UNSEEN

    They watch from afar and they send emissaries such as ourselves, at great risk to us, to give counsel and encouragement and to clarify things when that becomes necessary.

    There are ALLIES in space who deliver messages to individuals to place them in words to share with the sentient intelligent beings on earth. This some that are being sent to various beings around the world.

    “We, therefore, come in peace with a vital message.”

    INTERBREEDING

    Now we must speak of the fourth area in which your visitors seek to establish themselves, and that is through interbreeding.

    They cannot live in your environment.

    They need your physical stamina.

    They need your natural affinity with the world.

    They need your reproductive abilities.

    They also want to bond with you because they understand that this creates allegiance.

    This, in a way, establishes their presence here because the offspring of such a program will have blood relations in the world and yet will have allegiance to the visitors.

    The visitors are not here to take your reproductive abilities away from you.

    They are here to establish themselves.

    They want humanity to believe in them and to serve them.

    They want humanity to work for them.

    They will promise anything, offer anything and do anything to achieve this goal.

    Yet though their persuasion is great, their numbers are small.

    Their influence is growing.

    Their program of interbreeding, which has been underway for several generations, will eventually be effective.

    There will be human beings of greater intelligence but who do not represent the human family.

    All things are possible and have occurred countless times in the Greater Community.

    HISTORY

    You have only to look at your own history to see the impact of cultures and races upon one another and to see how dominating and how influential these interactions can be.

    Thus, we bring with us important news, serious news. But you must take heart, for this is not a time for ambivalence.

    This is not a time to seek escape.

    This is not a time to concern yourself with your own happiness.

    This is a time to contribute to the world, to strengthen the human family and to call forth those natural abilities that exist in people—the ability to see, to know and to act in harmony with one another.

    These abilities can offset the influence that is being cast upon humanity at this time, but these abilities must grow and be shared. It is of the utmost importance.

    This is our counsel. It comes with good intentions. Be glad that you have allies in the Galactic greater Community, for allies we were always present in space will need.

    We are entering a greater universe, filled with forces and influences that you have not yet learned how to counteract. You are entering a greater panorama of life. And we must prepare for this.

    WORDS

    Words are but part of the preparation.

    A preparation is being sent into the world now. It does not come from us.

    It comes from the Creator of all life.

    It comes at just the right time.

    Time is for humanity to become strong and wise separately as a unit and together as a whole community…

    ABILITY: You have the ability to do this.

    NEEDS: Events and circumstances of your life create a great need for this.

    I like to share words on my path of love and light while I am here. TJ

    27 ALIEN ET FACTS KNOWN TO EXIST ON EARTH BY TJ

    1. Aliens visit planet earth.

    2. There are various humanoid types of aliens.

    3. There are both male and female classed aliens

    4. There are various humanoid type aliens working together

    5. Aliens visit earth to collect specimens and explore

    6. Humans have been contacted on earth by aliens

    7. Aliens consider humanoids of earth an intelligent being species.

    8. Aliens consider humans a very young civilization of our kind.

    9. Aliens come and go at will.

    10. Aliens choose whom they contact.

    11. Some aliens do abduct humans although they bring them back.

    12. Aliens are interested in the Alien Hybrids.

    13. Aliens have enhanced some humans DNA

    14. Aliens have joined a benevolent alliance in space

    15. Aliens of Andromeda Galaxy will be joining Milky Way Galaxy.

    16. Awareness of Aliens Program in Progress.

    17. December 21, 2012 accepted as Alien Awareness Project Date Assignment

    18. Aliens can look like humans.

    19. Aliens who are far more advanced than humans of earth are interested in our species.

    20. Some aliens who are in the benevolent alliance are aware of malevolent violent aliens.

    21. We are to become aware of the alien benevolent alliance and the malevolent violent aliens.

    22. We will become aware of other alien civilizations in space from other galaxies.

    23. We will be learning about the alien spacecraft captured around the world.

    24. We will be sharing more knowledge of various human stories of alien encounters.

    25. We will discuss the “Contactees” encounters versus “Abductees” encounters.

    26. Assuming No attack or invasion, are good;

    27. Assuming Advanced Technology equals Advanced Ethics and Spirituality;

    What is a Superior Force ;(? Internal & External)

    Intrinsic Realities ~ Intrinsic Knowledge by Ginger Parrish Bowers is a book coming soon.

    Visit us on TheresaJMorris.org a Social Network of volunteer Social Entrepreneurs of Creativity and Generosity sharing their work, words, life, and experiences while introducing others to their creative works as BOOKS in art, culture, education, science, technology, folklife, and paranormal experiences. See also theresajmorris.com, TJMorrisET.com, TJMorrisACO.com. We may change website names.

    We who are considered Alien ET Hybrids are called Walk-Ins to some of the old Baby boomers (1946-1966). Then comes those we call the Lightworkers and the Younger or Second Wave of Lightworkers before we begin counting the Indigos. There are also the Crystals and the Rainbow Children. Depends on who one asks as to when one generation begins and the other ends. Just like we all have our ideas of what will happen in the Ascension Age beginning 12-21-12 that is simply called the Golden Age to all those of the old NEW AGE movement that want peace on this planet.

    If I am going to be asked to keep track and make the decisions like Buffy the Vampire Slayer or on Star Trek for all of us who are” wanna- be” science fiction writers then I am going to use what I believe to be my own way of thinking about the dividing lines. So, all those who have been keeping up aliens, and ufo reports in the old way of doing things in the old age were cut off officially as of 11-11-11. Things changed and so did we.

     Someone had to say it, do it, and make it happen! So, I just did! We will keep up with the various reporting agencies and directories online on the web and Internet. We will share the World Information Network (WIN) Alliance in the ET UFO Community. We will now form the Planet Information Network (PIN). We will know who will join us as allies and who will link in and also be added to our friend’s network. For now we only share connections and find each other using Facebook which is not owned by us but used by us. We see no reason to reinvent the wheel as in When in Rome.

    Whether MUFON, CUFOS, and all other reporting agencies want to abide by my date remains to be seen but those who are into the Ascension will probably agree with me. We see the spiritual enlightenment of the implications that things can’t go on forever the way they have been. Therefore, forever, has some rules and we are setting them ourselves.

    There are interested paranormalists that we call UFO Sky watchers who are intent on sharing their own views, ideas, videos, and photos with others on the Internet. Some are so into the movement they create fake ones and we must forgive these who are overzealous to say the least.

    But, we now have to be aware that there are people waking up all over the world and they truly want to be heard. IT is time to formulate, organize, and congregate with our similar interests much like Facebook is doing now for all of us. Most of us don’t need MUFON any longer when we can all meet on FACEBOOK and on WEBCAMS. Some will want to share their experiences and at the end of this article is one of those people who just want to know and belong with others who would share their sightings and belief in the ET UFO Boomerang shapes that fly in “V” formation. I am one who believes because I know and there is the fine difference in those who know and those who believe.   More and more people are waking up and sharing their stories of late. It is a sign of the times. I have many friends who are authors and speakers and they are jumping on the band wagon to speak at expos and seminars about what people want to hear and that is how to relate to the new paradigm which is a paradox. Most all are relating to the time that is date stamped on history as 12-21-12. We are now collecting all our information which had a speed up date on 11-11-11.

    TIME IS ACCELERATING FOR THE ASCENSION AGE .

    We in the REAL ET UFO COMMUNITY would appreciate all your lives being in order with all of your past life hurts forgiven. Whatever they are we all forgive you. Now we would like all interested parties in the REAL ET UFO COMMUNITY to step out of the crowd and be counted. We want to know you and your listed website or blog or websites and blogs if you have many like me. There are many being recruited as those we call Lightworkers and Truthseekers. There are many in the old paradigm movement of the last century still holding onto their old reports. Please get them out, dust them off, scan them and make them into DIGITAL MEDIA so the rest of us can read them and get them into the PROPER ARCHIVES for global future retrieval of those who will be left behind on earth. Many of you may already know of many of the “BABYBOOMER’s PARENTS” who are checking out. It is becoming harder and harder on many of us to stay in our body who are what the younger generation is calling the “OLD LIGHTWORKERS” – YES I SEE IT ALL THE TIME on WEBSITES. So if you are my age – I was a Babyboomer born December 26, 1951 and I am also an ALIEN ET HYBRID WALKIN or SPIRIT inside a body-mind-spirit having a birth-life-death experience with the rest of all humanoids on earth. In other words I believe we are all ET aliens and we are all Time-Travelers! I have even seen some major journalists quoting what I say and putting it in their own words and rewriting what I saw about the future and the times to come – so go ahead and share the times and use my name in vain if you need too but get the job done.

    We need all those who feel like they had a job to do to come forth and assist in all the UFO REPORTS in all the various PLACES like CUFOS, MUFON, SETI, CSETI, ECETI, and all the VARIOUS WEBSITES like UFO Digest.com , UFOMAG.com, Open Minds, and so on and so forth.

    There are many to choose from depending on your taste and desires to seek truth in work and words prepared as information by TJ Morris ET & Friends.

    I did not keep all the people records of stories that people sent me because I had no need.

     I was already on board and the plans were known to me in various levels and stages. I will do what I can to assist in the future alliance for the World Information Network (WIN) and will be linking and listing more and more websites that want to be added into the alliance.

    Some are thinking that the Galactic Federation are the EVIL ONES and sharing Don’t GET ON THE SHIPS!

    While others are saying they want to go home! So, go figure!

    Each being will have to decide for themselves whether they want to stay on this planet as agreed –

    I was once offered a chance to leave and chose to stay to assist during this time.

    Some believe there are the EVIL ONES on this planet in the underground caves and caverns up to no good and come and go as they please with a hidden agenda.

    We have not been invaded yet and I only know of a few pilots that have disappeared and we cannot blame their lost persons report on UFOS because the government and military forces say that is Impossible.

    We are now approaching the time of the harvest and our angels and guides if you will are going to begin sorting the wheat from the chaff and/or shaft just like our ancestors have predicted in the past.

    (1.Chaff to separate- grain husks from the seed, as by threshing. 2. Chaff- Releasing strips of metal foil into the air to avoid radar. 3. To make fun of as in good nature teasing.)

    Those who have great thoughts and believe in their own spirit having a birth-life-death experience here to return to their souls elsewhere as in dual citizenship in space will be taught to be aware and awake.

    Those who choose to remain on earth with those who will stay here and take care of the planet either dead or alive in humanoid body form will stay and be left behind.

    Some of us haven’t made up our minds.

    The fact is that people expect the “SHIFT TO THE UPLIFT” of spirit as the final and last days to occur on 12-21-12 or around that time.

    Even the “GREAT AWAKENING” of the spirit that the “NEW AGE” movement began has now shifted to the PREACHERS of the old TENT REVIVALS of the old days into the larger TV evangelism collectors of money.

    The Praise and Worship groups who have basically supported Gospel Music are all tuning into a shorter sermon and more singing and open praise with their voices and instead of using E-mail they still believe in KNEE-mail.

    From now on it’s all over but the deciding whether one believes they have a spirit or not and will they believe in the higher source and soul purpose for one’s own mission here on earth or will they simply become what we in the ET UFO Community call CANNON FODDER?

    I would like to leave on a positive note as a known commander of the Andromeda Galaxy and there are plenty of us ET types who know we are all about joining forces and deciding which uniform we will wear.

    Remember all that Gene Roddenberry did for us on this planet as STAR TREK and all that we gained in technology and he was actually one of us who we called the original NINE (9).

    We are chosen as what in other realms are called Time-Travelers and we are also known in earth terms as Avatar Ascended Masters having already died 8 times in this life of memories.

    I am one of the returns of the NINE.

     Just my name TJ can be shared as a reincarnation of the energy that is known in past lives all the way back to MU and Atlantis.

    Well enough reminiscing.

    It’s time to go and I really do want everyone to know we are all the same in the body-mind-spirit lifetimes here and some will get to see the rest of the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse.

    Some will simply stay behind and learn Quantum Physics for the new life on earth!

    TYPICAL EMAILS

    Typical emails I get from PEOPLE who are awakening and wondering, “WHAT DO I DO NOW WITH THIS KNOWLEDGE?” – TURN IN YOUR REPORTS! TJ?

    Hi, Theresa If you would like to put my story on your websites, Go-ahead use it if you like… I think Boomerang UFO Info would be great as it may bring out more people that have seen these things… I would love to know if other people have seen anything like what we saw that night. I really cannot be sure of the exact date; I have thought about it a lot and have it narrowed down to the summer of 1962, July or Aug. My friend and I were both 13 years old at the time… I will rewrite the story omitting our last names, correcting a typo as well, and referring to the year as the summer of 1962. Robert.

    Hi Theresa:

    My name is Robert and I now reside in British Columbia, Canada. I googled Boomerang type UFO s and came up with your info… Back when I was a 13 year old kid I lived in Estevan ,Sask. Canada and in the summer I quite often would sleep out on the lawn in the back yard ,sometimes with my friend, and star gaze until I finally went to sleep. Back in the summer of 1962 my friend Dennis and I were stargazing on a moonless night in Aug. when we saw these objects going zipping across the sky. We really could not believe what we just saw. I would describe them as five white boomerangs flying in a V formation… They appeared to be small and were very fast and silent… They first crossed the sky in a very straight line from East to West in approx. 1 second from horizon to horizon.  We were in disbelief as to what we just saw. Then approx. 30 seconds later they appeared again flying the exact same course from East to West again. It would have been approx. three or 4 minutes later, they crossed the sky from North to South again in straight line taking approx. 1 second from horizon to horizon, then approx. 30 seconds later they flew exactly the same course from North to South.  We thought at the time that they must have flown right around the earth from E to W twice then flew around the earth from N to S twice. I listened to the news on the radio the next day as I thought thousands of people would have seen what we saw that night but I guess us the only ones, as there was no mention of it on the news… After I found your info on the web, I found it interesting that UFO s can be the shape of boomerangs and I was wondering if you have ever heard of boomerang type UFO s flying in a V formation.  We saw them 4 times all together that night. I simply cannot believe we were the only ones that saw these things. Estevan Sask. is near the center of North America… I am not sure if that had anything to do with the flight path or not… My friend Dennis moved away a year later and I have not seen him since but I am sure if you talked to him, he would tell exactly the same story. We always referred to them as the “5 white boomerangs”. Cheers! Robert

    Hello Robert:

    Thank you for finding me under Boomerang UFOS. Yes, I have heard of V formation. IT is a typical flight pattern. Thank you for your story. Can you give me a date? Can I use your story on my websites/ See the LIST BELOW? I can place it in Social Paranormal.com, or ETspirit.org, or make a page for BOOMERANG UFO INFO.  ? ET UFOS Buzzed the Whitehouse – To Show The Reality of Existence. The whole world was watching and learning with major media writing about it in the newspapers. The world has since been brainwashed to forget by the makers of major media corporations who were in control such as the Rockefellers. Private Commerce became more powerful than government and the government was then controlled by big businesses thought to be too big to fail. The large black operations were financed from that point on due to the secrecy of the ET UFO considerations on earth and in space.

    I have some UFO LINKS I CAN ADD TOO! Thanks for the NEWS. I liked your story. Send me the exact dates if you can and email me back if it is okay for the whole world to see you email to me if they want to view your story?  THE AIR FORCE CALLS THIS A “V” FORMATION WHILE THE U.S. ARMY CALLS IT A WEDGE FORMATION BECAUSE THEY ARE PROTECTING EACH OTHER IN THAT FORMATION.  IT’S HARDER TO ATTACK AND SNEAK UP BEHIND THEM. YOU ARE COVERING a 360 DEGREES ALL THE WAY AROUND it is said to be the best pattern for travel. It is called a TRAVEL formation to cover distance. I will let you know how George Filer and MUFON prefer reports to be recorded. I am just now deciding to assist with keeping up with others since I have not in the past been keeping up with all the stories.  It is my understanding that most prefer to record their stories somewhere to be archived. The only place I have listed my own in the past was with MUFON. That stands for Mutual UFO Network. I can record your story as received with your EMAIL as a Digital EMAIL address and NAME.  If anyone desires to contact you in the world in the future they can use this address as long as it is good. It is probably best if we begin to document with some type of government identification so we can trace you down for more information. I am only trained in the legal and government type of investigation and this Internet documentation is something I can do in cyberspace on the Internet and simply have my WEBSITES kept and copied and archived which is done by certain companies already. I will keep this as the First One I am going to record in the new WORLD INFORMATION NETWORK (WIN) for PROOF.

     I personally use the ET SPIRIT.ORG for my contact with the ENERGY of those who are INVOLVED with similar interests that I have in the ET UFO COMMUNITY. Apparently there are many people who desire to contact me telling me their stories but in the past they just wanted to share them with me and did not want to go public. Maybe now times have changed for many as we get closer to the ASCENSION AGE. I also use the Ascension Center.ORG with many who have worked with me for years actually since the first Houston Gathering. 1984-85. I just did not recognize the world with the world until the log materialized in Hawaii, USA for us.

    I will record this confirmation of ET UFO BOOMERANGS flying in the “V” pattern formation.  (If some words are hard to define or spell out or sound out. It is because we search for the common meaning on earth. We take the vibrations and sound them out into symbols and then the words of the language of the interpreter. Love and Light – Namaste – TJ

    Good evening Tj!

    I hope you have had a great day so far it is storming very heavily in South Carolina! These monsoons are so unpredictable. I had a rest period during camp today and when I woke up it was exactly 12:27pm. I enjoyed that moment mightily. I am also in charge of all of the sports at camp and I enjoy every moment.

    As far as the websites, I really digested etspirit.org and struck interest in that page. I am a young writer; nevertheless, I am willing to learn more and more each day.

    I ponder more than anything in my day to day activities. The questions I come across each day never cease to amaze me. I am more than certain I have had contact with the extraterrestrial. The contact is in dream form and I make a huge attempt to recollect them fully.

    How did your contact come about and what was it like? My father is a pastor and I have been in a very religious background for a long time. My beliefs have been very abroad and I have no limit to the possibilities of the spirit.

     Love and Light TJ -TJ MORRIS» as the mantra and saying for all who live by the spirit.  This goes with Namaste as we each bow to each other for the spirit in each of us. It is an ancient mystery school custom. Also sharing our touch with the minds as greeting by touching our third eyes together for about a three second interval as a shared ancient custom. We are Lightworkers and Truthseekers and believe in divine creation of the spirit in us all in the entire Omniverse of the original creators be they called God and Goddess as the masculine and feminine. It was used thousands of earth years ago and the Egyptians understood the feminine and the cosmos as the mother and the womb of creation in the Omniverse. The future will delve more into the ancient mystical beliefs that were feminine and these became dominant because of some who desired to rule over being found to be light of heart as was first shared with all on this planet. We will begin recognizing those who have been called to share in the Ascension Age and with those of similar interests in the future in the Planet Information Network.COM. We will be working with those in the marketing and media with computer webmasters because of the need to further the awareness in the web. We shall create our own new expos around the world as the PIN EXPOS for Planet Information Network – where we can all share our wisdom. People want to know the truth and how to access it in the former paradigm which was the past while the future may seem a paradox.

    Tectonic Economics will have Seven Major Upper Echelons for the Directors of the Chief Agents

    Who will share in the Global Summit of Tectonic Economics with the entire list of plates including the

    Secondary and Tertiary plates for future reference and administration for Global Trade and Commerce.

    UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL

    At present China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are sometimes referred to as great powers, although there is no unanimous agreement among authorities as to the current status of these powers or what precisely defines a “great” power.

     These five nations are the only states to have permanent seats on the UN Security Council.

    They are also the recognized “Nuclear Weapons States” under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

    Sources have at times referred to China, France, and the UK as “middle powers”.

    In addition, despite the lack of a permanent seat at the UN Security Council, Germany and Japan are

    Occasionally considered to be great powers, although Germany and Japan are referred to by others as

    Middle powers or economic great powers.

    After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its UN Security Council permanent seat was transferred to

    The Russian Federation in 1991, as its successor state. The newly-formed Russian Federation emerged on

    The level of a great power, leaving the United States as the only remaining global superpower (although some support a multipolar world view).

    With continuing European integration, the European Union is increasingly being seen as a great power in its own right, most notably in areas where it has exclusive competence (i.e. economic affairs), and with

    Representation at the WTO and at G8 and G-20 summits.

    The European Union, however, is not a sovereign state and has limited scope in the areas of foreign affairs and defense policy, which remain with the union’s member states, which include great powers France, Germany and the United Kingdom.

     TECTONIC PLATES – Dealing in the Future Tectonic Economics of Earth

     JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF (7) – Seven Main Tectonic Plates Representatives China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and

    The United States

    (5) -POWERS

    1.    Great powers (with Security Council vetoes): China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States.

    2.    Great powers without Security Council vetoes: Germany and Japan.

    (2) Germany and Japan

    EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATORS (8) – The Second Eight in Command are the Administrators who answer directly

    To the Seven (7) Major Directors as the Joint Chiefs in Command of the Global Trade and Commerce.

     TECTONIC PLATES ECONOMIC CONGRESS (60)

    Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth’s crust and uppermost

    Mantle together referred to as the lithosphere.

     The plates are around 100 km (60 miles) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust

    (Also called sima from silicon and magnesium) and continental crust (sial from silicon and aluminum).

     The composition of the two types of crust differs markedly, with basaltic rocks (“mafic”) dominating

    Oceanic crust, while continental crust consists principally of lower density granitic rocks (“felsic”).

     Primary plates

    These seven plates comprise the bulk of the seven continents and the Pacific Ocean.

    1.    African Plate

    2.    Antarctic Plate

    3.    Eurasian Plate

    4.    Indo-Australian Plate

    5.    North American Plate

    6.    Pacific Plate

    7.    South American Plate

    Secondary plates

    These smaller plates are generally shown on major plate maps, but with the exception of the Arabian

    And Indian plates do not comprise significant land area.

    Arabian Plate

    Caribbean Plate

    Cocos Plate

    Indian Plate

    Juan de Fuca Plate

    Nazca Plate

    Philippine Sea Plate

    Scotia Plate

    Tertiary plates

    Tertiary plates are grouped with the major plate that they would otherwise be shown as part of on a

    Major Plate Map. Mostly these are tiny micro plates.

     An exception is in the case of the Nubian-Somalian and Australian-Capricorn-Indian plates these

    Are major plates that are drifting apart?

    Some models identify more minor plates within current orogens like the Apulian, Explorer, Gorda, and

    Philippine Mobile Belt plates.

    The remainders of the tertiary plates are the dwindling remains of much larger ancient plates.

    There may or may not be scientific consensus as to whether a tertiary plate is a separate plate yet,

    Is still a separate plate, or should be considered a separate plate, thus new research could

    Change this list below:

    African Plate

    Madagascar Plate

    Nubian Plate

    Seychelles Plate

    Somali Plate

    Antarctic Plate

    Kerguelen microcontinent

    Shetland Plate

    South Sandwich Plate

    Caribbean Plate

    Panama Plate

    Gonâve Microplate

    Cocos Plate

    Rivera Plate

    Eurasian Plate

    Adriatic or Apulian Plate

    Aegean Sea Plate (or Hellenic Plate)

    Amurian Plate

    Anatolian Plate

    Banda Sea Plate

    Burma Plate

    Iberian Plate

    Iranian Plate

    Molucca Sea Plate

    Halmahera Plate

    Sangihe Plate

    Okinawa Plate

    Pelso Plate

    Sunda Plate

    Timor Plate

    Tisza Plate

    Yangtze Plate

    Indo-Australian Plate

    Australian Plate

    Capricorn Plate

    Futuna Plate

    Indian Plate

    Kermadec Plate

    Maoke Plate

    Niuafo’ou Plate

    Sri Lanka Plate

    Tonga Plate

    Woodlark Plate

    Juan de Fuca Plate

    Explorer Plate

    Gorda Plate

    North American Plate

    Greenland Plate

    Okhotsk Plate

    Pacific Plate

    Balmoral Reef Plate

    Bird’s Head Plate

    Caroline Plate

    Conway Reef Plate

    Easter Plate

    Galapagos Plate

    Juan Fernandez Plate

    Kula Plate

    Manus Plate

    New Hebrides Plate

    North Bismarck Plate

    North Galapagos MicroPlate

    Solomon Sea Plate

    South Bismarck Plate

    Philippine Sea Plate

    Mariana Plate

    Philippine Microplate

    South American Plate

    Altiplano Plate

    Falklands Microplate

    North Andes Plate

     

    ANCIENT HISTORY OF PLATES

    In the history of Earth many tectonic plates have come into existence and have over the intervening years

    either accreted onto other plates to form larger plates, rifted into smaller plates, or have been crushed by or subducted under other plates (or have done all three).

    Ancient supercontinents

    A supercontinent is a landmass consisting of multiple continental cores. The following list includes

    The supercontinents known or speculated to have existed in the Earth’s past:

    Columbia

    Euramerica

    Gondwana

    Kenorland

    Laurasia

    Nena

    Pangaea

    Pannotia

    Proto-Gondwana

    Proto-Laurasia

    Rodinia

    Ur

    Vaalbara

    Legal aspects of computing

    Part of a series on

    Legal aspects of computing

    File sharing

    Legal aspects of hyperlinking and framing

    Spamming

    The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2012)

    Legal aspects of computing are related to the overlapping areas of law and computing.

    The first one, historically, was information technology law (or IT law). (“IT law” should not be confused with the IT aspects of law itself, although there are overlapping issues.) IT law consists of the law (statutes, regulations, and caselaw) which governs the digital dissemination of both (digitalized) information and software itself (see history of free and open-source software) and legal aspects of information technology more broadly. IT law covers mainly the digital information (including information security and electronic commerce) aspects and it has been described as “paper laws” for a “paperless environment”.

    Cyberlaw or Internet law is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of the Internet. It is less a distinct field of law than intellectual property or contract law, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include internet access and usage, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

    “Computer law” is a third term which tends to relate to issues including both Internet law and the patent and copyright aspects of computer technology and software.

    Areas of law

    See also: Software law

    There is intellectual property in general, including copyright, rules on fair use, and special rules on copy protection for digital media, and circumvention of such schemes. The area of software patents is controversial and still evolving in Europe and elsewhere.

    The related topics of software licenses, end user license agreements, free software licenses and open-source licenses can involve discussion of product liability, professional liability of individual developers, warranties, contract law, trade secrets and intellectual property.

    In various countries, areas of the computing and communication industries are regulated – often strictly – by government bodies.

    There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put; in particular there are rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming. There are also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat copy protection schemes. The export of Hardware and Software between certain states is also controlled.

    There are laws governing trade on the Internet, taxation, consumer protection, and advertising.

    There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies. There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons.

    In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts. New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court.

    Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues.

    Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means.

    Jurisdiction

    Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet.

    Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence. Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation. This is particularly problematic as the medium of the Internet does not explicitly recognize sovereignty and territorial limitations. There is no uniform, international jurisdictional law of universal application, and such questions are generally a matter of conflict of laws, particularly private international law. An example would be where the contents of a web site are legal in one country and illegal in another. In the absence of a uniform jurisdictional code, legal practitioners are generally left with a conflict of law issue.

    Another major problem of Cyberlaw lies in whether to treat the Internet as if it were physical space (and thus subject to a given jurisdiction’s laws) or to act as if the Internet is a world unto itself (and therefore free of such restraints). Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate. John Perry Barlow, for example, has addressed the governments of the world and stated, “Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different”.

     A more balanced alternative is the Declaration of Cybersecession: “Human beings possess a mind, which they are absolutely free to inhabit with no legal constraints. Human civilization is developing its own (collective) mind. All we want is to be free to inhabit it with no legal constraints. Since you make sure we cannot harm you, you have no ethical right to intrude our lives. So stop intruding!”

    Other scholars argue for more of a compromise between the two notions, such as Lawrence Lessig’s argument that “The problem for law is to work out how the norms of the two communities are to apply given that the subject to whom they apply may be in both places at once” (Lessig, Code 190).

    With the internationalism of the Internet, jurisdiction is a much more tricky area than before, and courts in different countries have taken various views on whether they have jurisdiction over items published on the Internet, or business agreements entered into over the Internet. This can cover areas from contract law, trading standards and tax, through rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming to more political areas such as freedom of speech, censorship, libel or sedition.

    Certainly, the frontier idea that the law does not apply in “Cyberspace” is not true. In fact, conflicting laws from different jurisdictions may apply, simultaneously, to the same event. The Internet does not tend to make geographical and jurisdictional boundaries clear, but Internet users remain in physical jurisdictions and are subject to laws independent of their presence on the Internet.

     As such, a single transaction may involve the laws of at least three jurisdictions:

    The laws of the state/nation in which the user resides.

    The laws of the state/nation that apply where the server hosting the transaction is located.

    The laws of the state/nation which apply to the person or business with whom the transaction takes place.

    So a user in one of the United States conducting a transaction with another user in Britain through a server in Canada could theoretically be subject to the laws of all three countries as they relate to the transaction at hand.

    In practical terms, a user of the Internet is subject to the laws of the state or nation within which he or she goes online.

    Thus, in the U.S., Jake Baker faced criminal charges for his e-conduct, and numerous users of peer-to-peer file-sharing software were subject to civil lawsuits for copyright infringement.

    This system runs into conflicts, however, when these suits are international in nature.

    Simply put, legal conduct in one nation may be decidedly illegal in another. In fact, even different standards concerning the burden of proof in a civil case can cause jurisdictional problems. For example, an American celebrity, claiming to be insulted by an online American magazine, faces a difficult task of winning a lawsuit against that magazine for libel. But if the celebrity has ties, economic or otherwise, to England, he or she can sue for libel in the British court system, where the standard of “libelous speech” is far lower.

    Internet governance is a live issue in international fora such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the role of the current US-based co-ordinating body, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was discussed in the UN-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in December 2003

    Internet Law

    If there are laws that could govern the Internet, then it appears that such laws would be fundamentally different from laws that geographic nations use today. The unique structure of the Internet has raised several judicial concerns. There is a substantial literature and commentary that the Internet is not only “regulable,” but is already subject to substantial law regulations, both public and private, by many parties and at many different levels. Since the Internet defies geographical boundaries, national laws can not apply globally and it has been suggested instead that the Internet can be self-regulated as being its own trans-national “nation”.

    Since the Internet law represents a legal paradigm shift, it is still in the process of development.

    In their essay “Law and Borders — The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”, David R. Johnson and David G. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and instead of obeying the laws of a particular country; “Internet citizens” will obey the laws of electronic entities like service providers.

    Instead of identifying as a physical person, Internet citizens will be known by their usernames or email addresses or, more recently, by their Facebook accounts.

    Leaving aside the most obvious examples of internet censorship in nations like China or Saudi Arabia or Iran that monitor content, there are four primary modes of regulation of the internet described by Lawrence Lessig in his book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace:

    Law: Standard East Coast Code, and the most self-evident of the four modes of regulation. As the numerous statutes, evolving case law and precedents make clear; many actions on the internet are already subject to conventional legislation (both with regard to transactions conducted on the internet and images posted.

    Areas like gambling, child pornography, and fraud are regulated in very similar ways online as off-line. While one of the most controversial and unclear areas of evolving laws is the determination of what forum has subject matter jurisdiction over activity economic and other conducted on the internet, particularly as cross border transactions affect local jurisdictions, it is certainly clear that substantial portions of internet activity are subject to traditional regulation, and that conduct that is unlawful off-line is presumptively unlawful online, and subject to similar laws and regulations. Scandals with major corporations led to US legislation rethinking corporate governance regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

    Architecture: West Coast Code: these mechanisms concern the parameters of how information can and cannot be transmitted across the internet. Everything from internet filtering software (which searches for keywords or specific URLs and blocks them before they can even appear on the computer requesting them), to encryption programs, to the very basic architecture of TCP/IP protocol, falls within this category of regulation. It is arguable that all other modes of regulation either rely on, or are significantly supported by, regulation via West Coast Code.

    Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the internet, or expressly prohibited by applicable law, nevertheless these activities or conduct will be invisibly regulated by the inherent standards of the community, in this case the internet “users.” And just as certain patterns of conduct will cause an individual to be ostracized from our real world society, so too certain actions will be censored or self-regulated by the norms of whatever community one chooses to associate with on the internet.

    Markets: Closely allied with regulation by virtue of social norms, markets also regulate certain patterns of conduct on the internet. While economic markets will have limited influence over non-commercial portions of the internet, the internet also creates a virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks. In addition, the increase in popularity of the internet as a means for transacting all forms of commercial activity, and as a forum for advertisement, has brought the laws of supply and demand in cyberspace.

    Net Neutrality

    Another major area of interest is net neutrality, which affects the regulation of the infrastructure of the Internet. Though not obvious to most Internet users, every packet of data sent and received by every user on the Internet passes through routers and transmission infrastructure owned by a collection of private and public entities, including telecommunications companies, universities, and governments. This is turning into one of the most critical aspects of Cyberlaw and has immediate jurisdictional implications, as laws in force in one jurisdiction have the potential to have dramatic effects in other jurisdictions when host servers or telecommunications companies are affected.

    Free speech on the Internet

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the protection of free expression in all media.

    In comparison to traditional print-based media, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. Any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach an audience of millions with little-to-no distribution costs. Yet this new form of highly accessible authorship in cyber space raises questions and perhaps magnifies legal complexities relating to the freedom and regulation of speech in cyberspace.

    These complexities have taken many forms, three notable examples being the Jake Baker incident, in which the limits of obscene Internet postings were at issue, the controversial distribution of the DeCSS code, and Gutnick v Dow Jones, in which libel laws were considered in the context of online publishing. The last example was particularly significant because it epitomized the complexities inherent to applying one country’s laws (nation-specific by definition) to the internet (international by nature). In 2003, Jonathan Zittrain considered this issue in his paper, “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”.

    In the UK the case of Keith-Smith v Williams confirmed that existing libel laws applied to internet discussions.

    In terms of the tort liability of ISPs and hosts of internet forums, Section 230(c) of the Communications Decency Act may provide immunity in the United States.

    Internet Censorship

    In many countries, speech through cyberspace has proven to be another means of communication which has been regulated by the government.

    The “Open Net Initiative”, whose mission statement is “to investigate and challenge state filtration and surveillance practices “to”…generate a credible picture of these practices, has released numerous reports documenting the filtration of internet-speech in various countries, While China has thus far proven to be the most rigorous in its attempts to filter unwanted parts of the internet from its citizens, many other countries – including Singapore, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia – have engaged in similar practices of Internet censorship. In one of the most vivid examples of information control, the Chinese government for a short time transparently forwarded requests to the Google search engine to its own, state-controlled search engines.

    These examples of filtration bring to light many underlying questions concerning the freedom of speech. For example, does the government have a legitimate role in limiting access to information? And if so, what forms of regulation are acceptable? For example, some argue that the blocking of “BlogSpot” and other websites in India failed to reconcile the conflicting interests of speech and expression on the one hand and legitimate government concerns on the other hand.

    The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

    Warren and Brandeis

    At the close of the 19th Century, concerns about privacy captivated the general public, and led to the 1890 publication of Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis: “The Right to Privacy”.

    The vitality of this article can be seen today, when examining the USSC decision of Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001) where it is cited by the majority, those in concurrence, and even those in dissent.

    The motivation of both authors to write such an article is heavily debated amongst scholars; however, two developments during this time give some insight to the reasons behind it. First, the sensationalistic press and the concurrent rise and use of “yellow journalism” to promote the sale of newspapers in the time following the Civil War brought privacy to the forefront of the public eye. The other reason that brought privacy to the forefront of public concern was the technological development of “instant photography”. This article set the stage for all privacy legislation to follow during the 20 and 21st Centuries.

    Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

    In 1967, the United States Supreme Court decision in Katz v United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967) established what is known as the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test to determine the applicability of the Fourth Amendment in a given situation. It should be noted that the test was not noted by the majority, but instead it was articulated by the concurring opinion of Justice Harlan. Under this test, 1) a person must exhibit an “actual (subjective) expectation of privacy” and 2) “the expectation [must] be one that society is prepared to recognize as ‘reasonable.’”

    Privacy Act of 1974

    Inspired by the Watergate scandal, the United States Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974 just four months after the resignation of then President Richard Nixon. In passing this Act, Congress found that “the privacy of an individual is directly affected by the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personal information by Federal agencies” and that “the increasing use of computers and sophisticated information technology, while essential to the efficient operations of the Government, has greatly magnified the harm to individual privacy that can occur from any collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal information.”

    For more information see: Privacy Act of 1974

    Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

    Codified at 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1811, this act establishes standards and procedures for use of electronic surveillance to collect “foreign intelligence” within the United States. §1804(a) (7) (B). FISA overrides the Electronic Communications Privacy Act during investigations when foreign intelligence is “a significant purpose” of said investigation. 50 U.S.C. § 1804(a)(7)(B) and §1823(a)(7)(B). Another interesting result of FISA, is the creation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). All FISA orders are reviewed by this special court of federal district judges. The FISC meets in secret, with all proceedings usually also held from both the public eye and those targets of the desired surveillance.

    For more information see: Foreign Intelligence Act

    (1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

    The ECPA represents an effort by the United States Congress to modernize federal wiretap law. The ECPA amended Title III (see: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) and included two new acts in response to developing computer technology and communication networks. Thus the ECPA in the domestic venue into three parts: 1) Wiretap Act, 2) Stored Communications Act, and 3) The Pen Register Act.

    Types of Communication

    Wire Communication: Any communication containing the human voice that travels at some point across a wired medium such as radio, satellite or cable.

    Oral Communication:

    Electronic Communication

    The Wiretap Act: For Information See Wiretap Act

    The Stored Communications Act: For information see Stored Communications Act

    The Pen Register Act: For information see Pen Register Act

    (1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

    The DPPA was passed in response to states selling motor vehicle records to private industry. These records contained personal information such as name, address, phone number, SSN, medical information, height, weight, gender, eye color, photograph and date of birth. In 1994, Congress passed the Driver’s Privacy Protection (DPPA), 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725, to cease this activity.

    For more information see: Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

    (1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

    -This act authorizes widespread sharing of personal information by financial institutions such as banks, insurers, and investment companies. The GLBA permits sharing of personal information between companies joined together or affiliated as well as those companies unaffiliated. To protect privacy, the act requires a variety of agencies such as the SEC, FTC, etc. to establish “appropriate standards for the financial institutions subject to their jurisdiction” to “insure security and confidentiality of customer records and information” and “protect against unauthorized access” to this information. 15 U.S.C. § 6801

    For more information see: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

    (2002) Homeland Security Act

    -Passed by Congress in 2002, the Homeland Security Act, 6 U.S.C. § 222, consolidated 22 federal agencies into what is commonly known today as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The HSA also created a Privacy Office under the DoHS. The Secretary of Homeland Security must “appoint a senior official to assume primary responsibility for privacy policy.” This privacy official’s responsibilities include but are not limited to: ensuring compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, evaluating “legislative and regulatory proposals involving the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by the Federal Government”, while also preparing an annual report to Congress.

    For more information see: Homeland Security Act

    (2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

    -This Act mandates that intelligence be “provided in its most shareable form” that the heads of intelligence agencies and federal departments “promote a culture of information sharing.” The IRTPA also sought to establish protection of privacy and civil liberties by setting up a five-member Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. This Board offers advice to both the President of the United States and the entire executive branch of the Federal Government concerning its actions to ensure that the branch’s information sharing policies are adequately protecting privacy and civil liberties.

    For more information see: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

    Legal enactments – examples

    The Computer Misuse Act 1990 enacted by Great Britain on 29 June 1990, and which came into force on 29 August 1990, is an example of one of the earliest of such legal enactments. This Act was enacted with an express purpose of making “provision for securing computer material against unauthorized access or modification.” Certain major provisions of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 relate to:

    “Unauthorized access to computer materials”,

    “Unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences”, and

    “Unauthorized modification of computer material.”

    The impact of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 has been limited and with the adoption of the Council of Europe adopts its Convention on Cyber-Crime, it has been indicated that amending legislation would be introduced in parliamentary session 2004–05 in order to rectify possible gaps in its coverage, which are many.

    The CMA 1990 has many weaknesses; the most notable is its inability to cater for, or provide suitable protection against, a host of high tech attacks/crimes which have become more prevalent in the last decade. Certain attacks such as DDOS and BOTNET attacks cannot be effectively brought to justice under the CMA. This act has been under review for a number of years. Computer crimes such as electronic theft are usually prosecuted in the UK under the legislation that caters for traditional theft (Theft Act 1968), because the CMA is so ineffective.

    A recent example of information technology law is India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 as amended by The Information Technology (amendment) Act of 2008 with The IT Rules of 2011. The Information Technology Act of 2000 was introduced on 9 June 2000. The Information Technology Act of 2000 came into force on 17 October 2000. This Act was amended vide Notification dated 27 October 2009. This Act applies to whole of India, and its provisions also apply to any offence or contravention, committed even outside the territorial jurisdiction of Republic of India, by any person irrespective of his nationality. In order to attract provisions of this Act, such an offence or contravention should involve a computer, computer system, or computer network located in India. The IT Act 2000 provides an extraterritorial applicability to its provisions by virtue of section 1(2) read with section 75.This Act has 90 sections.

    India’s The Information Technology Act 2000 has tried to assimilate legal principles available in several such laws (relating to information technology) enacted earlier in several other countries, as also various guidelines pertaining to Information Technology Law. This is a modern legislation with crimes like Hacking, Data theft, Spreading of Virus, Identity Theft, defamation, pornography, child pornography, cyber terrorism, crimes by companies etc. defined at great length.

    The IT Rules of 2011 talk about compliance and acts as The Data Protection Law of India

    .It also has Rules for Intermediaries (ISP’s, Network service providers, cyber cafes etc.).Section 66A deal with crime of sending offensive messages through communication medium which include sms, mms, email, blogs etc

    .Almost all sections are cognizable in nature and persons so affected can apply for compensation from Adjudicator appointed under Section 46.Appeal from adjudicator lies to Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

    Many Asian and Middle Eastern nations use any number of combinations of code-based regulation (one of Lessig’s four methods of net regulation) to block material that their governments have deemed inappropriate for their citizens to view. PRC, Saudi Arabia and Iran are three examples of nations that have achieved high degrees of success in regulating their citizens’ access to the Internet.

    Electronic signature laws

    Australia – Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (Cth) (also note that there is State and Territory mirror legislation)

    Costa Rica – Digital Signature Law 8454 (2005)

    European Union – Electronic Signature Directive (1999/93/EC)

    Mexico – E-Commerce Act [2000]

    U.S. – Digital Signature and Electronic Authentication Law

    U.S. – Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

    U.S. – Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA)

    U.S. – Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

    U.S. – Uniform Electronic Transactions Act – adopted by 46 states

    UK – s.7 Electronic Communications Act 2000

    Information technology law

    Florida Electronic Security Act

    Illinois Electronic Commerce Security Act

    Texas Penal Code – Computer Crimes Statute

    Maine Criminal Code – Computer Crimes

    Singapore Electronic Transactions Act

    Malaysia Computer Crimes Act

    Malaysia Digital Signature Act

    UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce

    Information Technology Act 2000 of India

    Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550

    Information Technology Guidelines

    ABA Digital Signature Guidelines

    United States Office of Management and Budget

    Enforcement agencies

    The Information Technology Laws of various countries, and / or their criminal laws generally stipulate enforcement agencies, entrusted with the task of enforcing the legal provisions and requirements.

    United States Federal Agencies

    Many United States federal agencies oversee the use of information technology. Their regulations are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States.

    Over 25 U.S. federal agencies have regulations concerning the use of digital and electronic signatures.

    India

    A live example of such an enforcement agency is Cyber Crime Police Station, Bangalore, India’s first exclusive Cyber Crime enforcement agency.

    Other examples of such enforcement agencies include:

    Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of India’s Mumbai Police.

    Cyber Crime Police Station of the state Government of Andhra Pradesh, India. This Police station has jurisdiction over the entire state of Andhra Pradesh, and functions from the Hyderabad city.

    In South India, the Crime Branch of Criminal Investigation Department, Tamilnadu police, India, has a Cyber Crime Cell at Chennai.

    In East India, Cyber Crime Cells have been set up by the Kolkata Police as well as the Criminal Investigation Department, West Bengal.

    Information Technology Lawyer

    An information technology attorney is a professional who handles a variety of legal matters related to IT. The attorney gets involved in drafting, negotiating, and interpreting agreements in the areas of software licensing and maintenance, IT consulting, e-commerce, web site hosting and development, and telecommunications agreements, as well as handling dispute resolution and assisting with the client’s Internet domain name portfolio. An information technology attorney works with engineering, IT, and other business units and ensures that customer information gathered by company is collected, stored and used in compliance with privacy policies and applicable laws.

    Duties also include providing high quality, specialized and practical advice in business-to-business and business-to-consumer arrangements and advising on issues like IT outsourcing arrangements, software and hardware supply and implementation agreements. An information technology attorney contracts for web site developers and consultants in relation to on-line projects. Provides support and maintains confidentiality/know how agreements. Contracts for Internet service providers and data protection advice. An information technology attorney should have a JD degree or an LL.M degree with admission to the local state bar.

    Quotations

    “In Cyberspace, the First Amendment is a local ordinance.”

    — John Perry Barlow, quoted by Mitchell Kapor in the foreword to The Big Dummy’s Guide to the Internet

    “National borders aren’t even speed bumps on the information superhighway.”

    — Tim May, signature, from 1996

    See also

    Berkman Center for Internet & Society

    Bernstein v. United States and Junger v. Daley – on free speech protection of software

    Computer forensics

    Computer crime

    Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

    Electronic Communications Privacy Act

    Export of cryptography

    Glossary of legal terms in technology

    Software patent debate

    Universal v. Reimerdes – test of DMCA

    Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. (DMCA and ADA)

    Wassenaar Arrangement

    Doe v. 2themart.com Inc. – First Amendment right to speak anonymously

    United States v. Ivanov – Applying United States cyber-law to a foreign national operating outside the US

    Centers and groups for the study of cyberlaw and related areas

    Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School

    Centre for Internet and Society, in Bangalore, India.

    Institute for Information, Telecommunication and Media Law in Münster, Germany

    Institute of Space and Telecommunications Law (IDEST) at University of Paris-Sud, Master’s degree in Space Activities and Telecommunications Law

    Master of New Technologies law at Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain

    Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law

    Stanford Center for Internet and Society, at Stanford Law School

    Topics related to cyberlaw

    Copyright, especially the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in the United States, and similar laws in other countries

    Cyber defamation law

    Digital Rights Management

    Intellectual property

    Internet censorship

    Stop Online Piracy Act

    Spamming

    The Law of Cyber-Space (book)

    Conferences related to cyberlaw

    State of Play, a conference series put on by the Institute for Information Law & Policy at New York Law School, concerning the intersection of virtual worlds, games and the law.

    Further reading

    Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, The Future of Ideas, and Free Culture by Lawrence Lessig

    Cyber Rights by Mike Godwin

    E-Commerce and Internet Law: Treatise with Forms 2d edition, by Ian C. Ballon

    The Wikipedia project suffers systemic bias that naturally grows from its contributors’ demographic groups, manifesting an imbalanced coverage of a subject, thereby discriminating against the less represented demographic groups. See an explanation of systemic bias on Wikipedia for how this may affect articles and content. This project aims to control and (possibly) eliminate the cultural perspective gaps made by the systemic bias, consciously focusing upon subjects and points of view neglected by the encyclopedia as a whole. A list of articles needing attention is in the CSB Open Tasks list.

    Generally, this project concentrates upon remedying omissions (entire topics, or particular sub-topics in extant articles) rather than on either (1) protesting against inappropriate inclusions, or (2) trying to remedy issues of how material is presented. Thus, the first question is “What haven’t we covered yet?”, rather than “how should we change the existing coverage?” The 22 October 2013 essay by Tom Simonite in MIT’s Technology Review titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on recent downward trends in the number of editors available to support Wikipedia’s range and coverage of topics.

    See further reading for studies, statistics, or other information that demonstrate contributor or subject imbalances.

    Tasks

    There are many things you may do, listed roughly from least to most intensive:

    Sign up as a participant and mention any interests you may have related to “Countering systemic bias” (CSB).

    Add the Open Tasks box ({{WikiProjectCSBTasks}}) to your User or User talk page to let other people know about the issue.

    Read news articles in as many languages as you know, from as many news sources as you can find, from as many political view points as you can find (especially those that you would normally not read) when examining a topical or recent event or editing an existing article related to a particular subject.

    Don’t overlook the official news outlets of a country. Certainly they will be more one sided than wikipedians may like, but they may provide a different way of thinking about an article. They may also be useful as a primary source of information about why the government of that particular country has its opinion on a subject and why it acts the way it does. The readers of Wikipedia could benefit from this, regardless of whether they agree with that view or not (if they don’t, they may use it to find errors in its logic or thinking). For example, official news outlets may be useful indicators of how Mainland China thinks about Tibet or Taiwan. Secondly, they may provide relevant non-controversial information about the country or its leaders which could help in improving the article on that topic, for instance, date and place of birth, occupation of leaders, cultural heritage of, links to and other tidbits which may not be available elsewhere.

    See if there are web pages on a particular subject which were written by people from other countries or cultures. It may provide you other places to look or other points of view to consider.

    Be more conscious of your own biases in the course of normal editing. Look at the articles you work on usually and think about whether they are written from an international perspective. If not, you might be able to learn a lot about a subject you thought you knew by adding content with a different perspective.

    Occasionally edit a subject that is systemically biased against the pages of your natural interests. The net effect of consciously changing one out of every twenty of your edits to something outside your “comfort zone” would be substantial.

    Create or edit one of the articles listed on the CSB template. If you don’t particularly like any of the subjects on the template, our open tasks list has a wide array of articles in need of attention.

    Add to the open tasks list. No one person can fix a system-wide problem, so be sure to tell people when you find needy articles.

    Rotate articles from the open tasks list to the template, and other helpful tidying tasks.

    Check articles to see if they still need work, and if they’ve been improved move them to the right section or leave a note.

    Give feedback on this WikiProject on the talk page.

    If you’re multilingual, add information from Wikipedia articles in other languages to their English Wikipedia counterparts.

    Contribute to articles on under-represented topics that you are familiar with.

    Be careful not to worsen the bias with your deletion nominations. If you are not familiar with a subject area, or it has meaning outside your experience base, discuss your concerns on the talk page or another appropriate forum before making an AfD nomination.

    Change the demographic of Wikipedia. Encourage friends and acquaintances that you know have interests that are not well-represented on Wikipedia to edit. If you are at high school or university, contact a professor in minority, women’s, or critical studies, explain the problem, and ask if they would be willing to encourage students to write for Wikipedia. Contact minority or immigrant organizations in your area to see if they would be interested in encouraging their members to contribute. The worst they could say is, “No”. But keep in mind that immigrant organizations may well have a different point of view than the majority of people in the countries they emigrated from (their members may, for example, be members of a minority themselves or may have emigrated because of a disagreement with the government not shared by the majority of the population), which introduces its own systemic bias.

    Related WikiProjects and regional noticeboards

    There are several WikiProjects and regional notice boards that have potential to help out in our efforts. We may also eventually want to create new WikiProjects as part of this effort.

    Members

    Please add your name to the member’s page.

    If you have specific interests relating to Countering Systematic Bias, feel free to briefly describe them there or on the Wikiproject’s talk page so we can get a sense of the strengths of the project.

       History of the World Wide Web

    The NeXT Computer used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.

    In the May 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that satellites would someday “bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips” using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data transfer and video conferencing around the globe.

    In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, and described a more elaborate information management system.

    With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a “Hypertext project” called “WorldWideWeb” one word, also “W3″ as a “web” of “hypertext documents” to be viewed by “browsers” using client–server architecture.

    This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve “the creation of new links and new material by readers, so that authorship becomes universal” as well as “the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available.” While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.

    The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration.

    The CERN datacenter in 2010 housing some WWW servers

    A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world’s first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages, which described the project itself.

    The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones (computer technologist) of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page given to him by Berners-Lee during a visit to UNC in 1991 which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer.

    On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup.

    This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23.

    For this reason this is considered the internaut’s day. Many news media have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were “totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism.”

    The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992, whereas SLAC itself claims 1991.

    This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web.

    The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart’s oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush’s microfilm-based “memex”, which was described in the 1945 essay “As We May Think”.

    Berners-Lee’s breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book weaving the Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:

    a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);

    The publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);

    The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

    The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due.

    Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for UNIX and the X Windowing System.

    Robert Cailliau, Jean-François Abramatic of IBM, and Tim Berners-Lee at the 10th anniversary of the World Wide Web Consortium.

    Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen.

    Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore.

    Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web’s popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic’s graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.

    The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today’s most popular services.

    Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet.

    Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet. The web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.

    Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.

    Function

    The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that run on the Internet. It is a collection of text documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers from web servers. In short, the web can be thought of as an application “running” on the Internet.

    Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as ‘browsing,’ ‘web surfing,’ or ‘navigating the web’. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation.

    The following example demonstrates how a web browser works. Consider accessing a page with the URL http://example.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web.

    First, the browser resolves the server-name portion of the URL (example.org) into an Internet Protocol address using the globally distributed database known as the Domain Name System (DNS); this lookup returns an IP address such as 208.80.152.2. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that particular address. It makes the request to a particular application port in the underlying Internet Protocol Suite so that the computer receiving the request can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing such as e-mail delivery; the HTTP protocol normally uses port 80. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as the two lines of text GET /wiki/World_Wide_Web HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org

    The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port 80. If the web server can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success, which can be as simple as HTTP/1.0 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 followed by the content of the requested page. The Hypertext Markup Language for a basic web page looks like <html> <head> <title>Example.org – The World Wide Web</title> </head> <body> <p>The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known …</p> </body> </html>

    The web browser parses the HTML, interpreting the markup (<title>, <p> for paragraph, and such) that surrounds the words in order to draw the text on the screen.

    Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behavior, and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout. The browser will make additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other Internet media types. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources.

    Linking

    Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like <a href=”http://example.org/wiki/Main_Page“>Example.org, a free encyclopedia</a>

    Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks

    Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a web of information. Publication on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the WorldWideWeb (in its original CamelCase, which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990.

    The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described by the webgraph: the nodes of the webgraph correspond to the web pages (or URLs) the directed edges between them to the hyperlinks.

    Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive, active since 1996, is the best known of such efforts.

    Dynamic updates of web pages

    Ajax (programming)

    JavaScript is a scripting language that was initially developed in 1995 by Brendan Eich, then of Netscape, for use within web pages.

    The standardized version is ECMAScript.

    To make web pages more interactive, some web applications also use JavaScript techniques such as Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML).

    Client-side script is delivered with the page that can make additional HTTP requests to the server, either in response to user actions such as mouse movements or clicks, or based on lapsed time.

    The server’s responses are used to modify the current page rather than creating a new page with each response, so the server needs only to provide limited, incremental information. Multiple Ajax requests can be handled at the same time, and users can interact with the page while data is being retrieved. Web pages may also regularly poll the server to check whether new information is available.

    WWW prefix

    Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with www because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers) according to the services they provide. The hostname for a web server is often www, in the same way that it may be ftp for an FTP server, and news or nntp for a USENET news server. These host names appear as Domain Name System or (DNS) subdomain names, as in www.example.com. The use of ‘www’ as a subdomain name is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; indeed, the first ever web server was called nxoc01.cern.ch.

    According to Paolo Palazzi, who worked at CERN along with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of ‘www’ subdomain was accidental.

    The World Wide Web project page was intended to be published at www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch was intended to be the CERN home page, however the dns records were never switched, and the practice of prepending ‘www’ to an institution’s website domain name was subsequently copied.

    Many established websites still use ‘www’, or they invent other subdomain names such as ‘www2′, ‘secure’, etc.

    Many such web servers are set up so that both the domain root (e.g., example.com) and the www subdomain (e.g., www.example.com) refer to the same site; others require one form or the other, or they may map to different web sites.

    The use of a subdomain name is useful for load balancing incoming web traffic by creating a CNAME record that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root.

    When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix “www” to the beginning of it and possibly “.com”, “.org” and “.net” at the end, depending on what might be missing. For example, entering ‘Microsoft’ may be transformed to http://www.microsoft.com/ and ‘openoffice’ tohttp://www.openoffice.org.

    This feature started appearing in early versions of Mozilla Firefox, when it still had the working title ‘Firebird’ in early 2003, from an earlier practice in browsers such as Lynx.

    It is reported that Microsoft was granted a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices.

    In English, www is usually read as double-u double-u double-u.

    Some users pronounce it dub-dub-dub, particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his “Podgrammes” series of podcasts, pronounces it wuh wuh wuh.

    The English writer Douglas Adams once quipped in The Independent on Sunday (1999): “The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it’s short for”.

    In Mandarin Chinese, World Wide Web is commonly translated via a phono-semantic matching to wàn wéi wǎng (万维网), which satisfies www and literally means “myriad dimensional net”, a translation that very appropriately reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web.

    Tim Berners-Lee’s web-space states that World Wide Web is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalized, with no intervening hyphens.

    Use of the www prefix is declining as Web 2.0 web applications seek to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.

    As the mobile web grows in popularity, services like Gmail.com, MySpace.com, Facebook.com and Twitter.com are most often discussed without adding www to the domain (or, indeed, the .com).

    Scheme specifiers: http and https

    The scheme specifier http:// or https:// at the start of a web URI refers to Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP Secure respectively.

    Unlike www, which has no specific purpose, these specify the communication protocol to be used for the request and response.

    The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web and the added encryption layer in HTTPS is essential when confidential information such as passwords or banking information are to be exchanged over the public Internet.

    Web browsers usually prepend http:// to addresses too, if omitted.

    Web servers

    The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and scripts.

    Privacy

    Internet privacy

    Every time a web page is requested from a web server the server can identify, and usually it logs, the IP address from which the request arrived. Equally, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record the web pages that have been requested and viewed in a history feature, and usually cache much of the content locally.

    Unless HTTPS encryption is used, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the internet and they can be viewed, recorded and cached by intermediate systems.

    When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, personally identifiable information such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc., then a connection can be made between the current web traffic and that individual.

    If the website uses HTTP cookies, username and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, then it will be able to relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided.

    In this way it is possible for a web-based organization to develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites.

    It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their demographic profile.

    These profiles are obviously of potential interest to marketeers, advertisers and others.

    Depending on the website’s terms and conditions and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organizations without the user being informed.

    For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box, or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page.

    For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome.

    Law enforcement, counter terrorism and espionage agencies can also identify, target and track individuals based on what appear to be their interests or proclivities on the web.

    Social networking sites make a point of trying to get the user to truthfully expose their real names, interests and locations.

    This makes the social networking experience more realistic and therefore engaging for all their users.

    On the other hand, photographs uploaded and unguarded statements made will be identified to the individual, who may regret some decisions to publish their data.

    Employers, schools, parents and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences.

    On-line bullies may make use of personal information to harass or stalk users.

    Modern social networking websites allow fine grained control of the privacy settings for each individual posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners.

    Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person’s face to an on-line profile.

    With modern and potential facial recognition technology, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere.

    Because of image caching, mirroring and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web.

    Intellectual property

    The intellectual property rights for any creative work initially rest with its creator.

    Web users who want to publish their work onto the World Wide Web, however, need to be aware of the details of the way they do it.

    If artwork, photographs, writings, poems, or technical innovations are published by their creator onto a privately owned web server, then they may choose the copyright and other conditions freely themselves.

    This is unusual though; more commonly work is uploaded to websites and servers that are owned by other organizations.

    It depends upon the terms and conditions of the site or service provider to what extent the original owner automatically signs over rights to their work by the choice of destination and by the act of uploading.

    Some users of the web erroneously assume that everything they may find online is freely available to them as if it was in the public domain, which is not always the case.

    Content owners that are aware of this widespread belief may expect that their published content will probably be used in some capacity somewhere without their permission.

    Some content publishers therefore embed digital watermarks in their media files, sometimes charging users to receive unmarked copies for legitimate use.

    Digital rights management includes forms of access control technology that further limit the use of digital content even after it has been bought or downloaded.

    Security

    The web has become criminals’ preferred pathway for spreading malware.

    Cybercrime carried out on the web can include identity theft, fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering.

    Web-based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns, and as measured by Google, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code.

    Most web-based attacks take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by Sophos, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.

    The most common of all malware threats is SQL injection attacks against websites.

    Through HTML and URIs the web was vulnerable to attacks like cross-site scripting (XSS) that came with the introduction of JavaScript and were exacerbated to some degree by Web 2.0 and Ajax web design that favors the use of scripts.

    Today by one estimate, 70% of all websites are open to XSS attacks on their users.

    Proposed solutions vary to extremes. Large security vendors like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations, and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source.

    Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center, “ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management” enforced in the infrastructure by a handful of organizations must replace the hundreds of companies that today secure data and networks.

     Jonathan Zittrain has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.

    Standards

    Web standards

    Many formal standards and other technical specifications and software define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange.

    Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other organizations.

    Usually, when web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational:

    Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C.

    These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext documents.

    Recommendations for stylesheets, especially CSS, from the W3C.

    Standards for ECMAScript (usually in the form of JavaScript), from Ecma International.

    Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.

    Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following:

    Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are defined by the IETF’s RFC 3986 / STD 66: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, as well as its predecessors and numerous URI scheme-defining RFCs;

    HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), especially as defined by RFC 2616: HTTP/1.1 and RFC 2617: HTTP Authentication, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other.

    Accessibility

    Web accessibility

    There are methods available for accessing the web in alternative mediums and formats, so as to enable use by individuals with disabilities.

    These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination therein.

    Accessibility features also help others with temporary disabilities like a broken arm or the aging population as their abilities change.

     The Web is used for receiving information as well as providing information and interacting with society.

    The World Wide Web Consortium claims it essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with disabilities.

    Tim Berners-Lee once noted, “The power of the Web is in its universality.

    Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.”

    Many countries regulate web accessibility as a requirement for websites.

     International cooperation in the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using assistive technology.

    Internationalization

    The W3C Internationalization Activity assures that web technology will work in all languages, scripts, and cultures.

    Beginning in 2004 or 2005, Unicode gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both ASCII and Western European as the Web’s most frequently used character encoding.

    Originally RFC 3986 allowed resources to be identified by URI in a subset of US-ASCII. RFC 3987 allows more characters—any character in the Universal Character Set—and now a resource can be identified by IRI in any language.

    Statistics

    Between 2005 and 2010, the number of web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010.

    Early studies in 1998 and 1999 estimating the size of the web using capture/recapture methods showed that much of the web was not indexed by search engines and the web was much larger than expected.

    According to a 2001 study, there were a massive number, over 550 billion, of documents on the Web, mostly in the invisible Web, or Deep Web.

    A 2002 survey of 2,024 million web pages determined that by far the most web content was in the English language: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%).

    A more recent study, which used web searches in 75 different languages to sample the web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion web pages in the publicly indexable web as of the end of January 2005.

     As of March 2009, the indexable web contains at least 25.21 billion pages.

    On 25 July 2008, Google software engineers Jesse Alpert and Nissan Hajaj announced that Google Search had discovered one trillion unique URLs.

    As of May 2009, over 109.5 million domains operated.

    Of these 74% were commercial or other domains operating in the .com generic top-level domain.

    Statistics measuring a website’s popularity are usually based either on the number of page views or on associated server ‘hits’ (file requests) that it receives.

    Speed issues

    Frustration over congestion issues in the Internet infrastructure and the high latency that results in slow browsing has led to a pejorative name for the World Wide Web: the World Wide Wait.

    Speeding up the Internet is an ongoing discussion over the use of peering and QoS technologies.

    Other solutions to reduce the congestion can be found at W3C.

    Guidelines for web response times are:

    0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user does not sense any interruption.

    1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience.

    10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system.

    Caching

    Web cache

    If a user revisits a web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source web server.

    Almost all web browsers cache recently obtained data, usually on the local hard drive.

    HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually ask only for data that has changed since the last download.

    If the locally cached data are still current, they will be reused.

    Caching helps reduce the amount of web traffic on the Internet.

    The decision about expiration is made independently for each downloaded file, whether image, stylesheet, JavaScript, HTML, or other web resource.

    Thus even on sites with highly dynamic content, many of the basic resources need to be refreshed only occasionally.

    Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently.

    This helps reduce page download times and lowers demands on the Web server.

    There are other components of the Internet that can cache web content.

    Corporate and academic firewalls often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of all. See also caching proxy server.

    Some search engines also store cached content from websites.

    Apart from the facilities built into web servers that can determine when files have been updated and so need to be re-sent, designers of dynamically generated web pages can control the HTTP headers sent back to requesting users, so that transient or sensitive pages are not cached.

    Internet banking and news sites frequently use this facility.

     Data requested with an HTTP ‘GET’ is likely to be cached if other conditions are met; data obtained in response to a ‘POST’ is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached.

    History of the Internet

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    History of computing

    Hardware

    Hardware before 1960 Hardware 1960s to present Hardware in Soviet Bloc countries

    Software

    Software Unix Free software and open-source software

    Computer science

    Artificial intelligence Compiler construction Computer science Operating systems Programming languages Software engineering

    Modern concepts

    Graphical user interface Internet Personal computers Laptops Video games World Wide Web

    Timeline of computing

    2400 BC–1949 1950–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–2019 more timelines …

    Category

    Internet

    Visualization of Internet routing paths

    An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet: General Access, Censorship, Democracy, Digital Divide, Digital Rights, Freedom of Information, History of the Internet, Internet Phenomena, Net Nutrality, Pioneers, Privacy, Sociology, Usage, Governance, Information Infrastructure, Services, Guides, Portal Icon, Internet Portal

    History of the Internet

     

    The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s.

    The first message was sent over the ARPANet, which evolved into the internet, from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

    Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, and were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols.

    The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.

    In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept of a world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the Internet, was introduced.

    Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

    The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990.

    The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.

    Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) “phone calls”, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites.

    The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF’s very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more.

    The Internet’s takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007.

    Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.

    Internet history timeline

    Early research and development:

    1961 – First packet-switching papers

    1966 – Merit Network founded

    1966 – ARPANET planning starts

    1969 – ARPANET carries its first packets

    1970 – Mark I network at NPL (UK)

    1970 – Network Information Center (NIC)

    1971 – Merit Network’s packet-switched network operational

    1971 – Tymnet packet-switched network

    1972 – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established

    1973 – CYCLADES network demonstrated

    1974 – Telenet packet-switched network

    1976 – X.25 protocol approved

    1978 – Minitel introduced

    1979 – Internet Activities Board (IAB)

    1980 – USENET news using UUCP

    1980 – Ethernet standard introduced

    1981 – BITNET established

    Merging the networks and creating the Internet:

    1981 – Computer Science Network (CSNET)

    1982 – TCP/IP protocol suite formalized

    1982 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

    1983 – Domain Name System (DNS)

    1983 – MILNET split off from ARPANET

    1985 – First .COM domain name registered

    1986 – NSFNET with 56 kbit/s links

    1986 – Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

    1987 – UUNET founded

    1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1.5 Mbit/s (T1)

    1988 – OSI Reference Model released

    1988 – Morris worm

    1989 – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

    1989 – PSINet founded, allows commercial traffic

    1989 – Federal Internet Exchanges (FIXes)

    1990 – GOSIP (without TCP/IP)

    1990 – ARPANET decommissioned

    1990 – Advanced Network and Services (ANS)

    1990 – UUNET/Alternet allows commercial traffic

    1990 – Archie search engine

    1991 – Wide area information server (WAIS)

    1991 – Gopher

    1991 – Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX)

    1991 – ANS CO+RE allows commercial traffic

    1991 – World Wide Web (WWW)

    1992 – NSFNET upgraded to 45 Mbit/s (T3)

    1992 – Internet Society (ISOC) established

    1993 – Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

    1993 – InterNIC established

    1993 – Mosaic web browser released

    1994 – Full text web search engines

    1994 – North American Network Operators’ Group (NANOG) established

    Commercialization, privatization, broader access leads to the modern Internet:

    1995 – New Internet architecture with commercial ISPs connected at NAPs

    1995 – NSFNET decommissioned

    1995 – GOSIP updated to allow TCP/IP

    1995 – Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS)

    1995 – IPv6 proposed

    1998 – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

    1999 – IEEE 802.11b wireless networking

    1999 – Internet2/Abilene Network

    1999 – vBNS+ allows broader access

    2000 – Dot-com bubble bursts

    2001 – New top-level domain names activated

    2001 – Code Red I, Code Red II, and Nimda worms

    2003 – UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) phase I

    2003 – National LambdaRail founded

    2004 – UN Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG)

    2005 – UN WSIS phase II

    2006 – First meeting of the Internet Governance Forum

    2010 – First internationalized country code top-level domains registered

    2012 – ICANN begins accepting applications for new generic top-level domain names

    Examples of popular Internet services:

    1990 – IMDb Internet movie database

    1995 – Amazon.com online retailer

    1995 – eBay online auction and shopping

    1995 – Craigslist classified advertisements

    1996 – Hotmail free web-based e-mail

    1997 – Babel Fish automatic translation

    1998 – Google Search

    1998 – Yahoo! Clubs (now Yahoo! Groups)

    1998 – PayPal Internet payment system

    1999 – Napster peer-to-peer files sharing

    2001 – BitTorrent peer-to-peer files sharing

    2001 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    2003 – LinkedIn business networking

    2003 – Myspace social networking site

    2003 – Skype Internet voice calls

    2003 – iTunes Store

    2003 – 4Chan Anonymous image-based bulletin board

    2003 – The Pirate Bay, torrent file host

    2004 – Facebook social networking site

    2004 – Podcast media file series

    2004 – Flickr image hosting

    2005 – YouTube video sharing

    2005 – Reddit link voting

    2005 – Google Earth virtual globe

    2006 – Twitter microblogging

    2007 – WikiLeaks anonymous news and information leaks

    2007 – Google Street View

    2007 – Kindle, e-book reader and virtual bookshop

    2008 – Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)

    2008 – Dropbox cloud-based file hosting

    2008 – Encyclopedia of Life, a collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all living species

    2008 – Spotify, a DRM-based music streaming service

    2009 – Bing search engine

    2009 – Google Docs, Web-based word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, form, and data storage service

    2009 – Kickstarter, a threshold pledge system

    2011 – Google+ social networking

    Further information: Timeline of popular Internet services

    Precursors

    See also: Victorian Internet

    The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Thus the Internet has precursors, such as the telegraph system, that date back to the 19th century, more than a century before the digital Internet became widely used in the second half of the 1990s.

    The concept of data communication – transmitting data between two different places, connected via some kind of electromagnetic medium, such as radio or an electrical wire – predates the introduction of the first computers. Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices.

    Telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication.

    Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley, during the early 20th century.

    Early computers used the technology available at the time to allow communication between the central processing unit and remote terminals.

    As the technology evolved, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances for terminals or with higher speed for interconnection of local devices that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. Using these technologies made it possible to exchange data such as files between remote computers. However, the point to point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems; a physical link was necessary.

    The technology was also deemed as inherently unsafe for strategic and military use, because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an enemy attack.

    Three terminals and an ARPA

    RAND Corporation and ARPANET

    A pioneer in the call for a global network, J. C. R. Licklider, proposed in his January 1960 paper, “Man-Computer Symbiosis”: “A network of such computers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines which provided]the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and [other] symbiotic functions.”

    In August 1962, Licklider and Welden Clark published the paper “On-Line Man Computer Communication”, which was one of the first descriptions of a networked future.

    In October 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as director of the newly established Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within DARPA, with a mandate to interconnect the United States Department of Defense’s main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, the Pentagon, and SAC HQ. There he formed an informal group within DARPA to further computer research. He began by writing memos describing a distributed network to the IPTO staff, which he called “Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network”.

    As part of the information processing office’s role, three network terminals had been installed: one for System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, one for Project

    Genie at the University of California, Berkeley and one for the Compatible Time-Sharing System project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

    Licklider’s identified need for inter-networking would be made obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused.

    For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online with someone at S.D.C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get up from the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them….

    I said, oh man, it’s obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.

    That idea is the ARPAnet.

    Although he left the IPTO in 1964, five years before the ARPANET went live; it was his vision of universal networking that provided the impetus that led his successors such as Lawrence Roberts and Robert Taylor to further the ARPANET development.

    Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in 1973 for two years.

    Packet switching

    Len Kleinrock and the first Interface Message Processor.

    At the tip of the problem lay the issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logical network.

    During the 1960s, Paul Baran (RAND Corporation) produced a study of survivable networks for the US military.

    Information transmitted across Baran’s network would be divided into what he called ‘message-blocks’.

    Independently, Donald Davies (National Physical Laboratory, UK), proposed and developed a similar network based on what he called packet-switching, the term that would ultimately be adopted. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT) developed a mathematical theory behind this technology. Packet-switching provides better bandwidth utilization and response times than the traditional circuit-switching technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limited interconnection links.

    Packet switching is a rapid store and forward networking design that divides messages up into arbitrary packets, with routing decisions made per-packet. Early networks used message switched systems that required rigid routing structures prone to single point of failure.

    This led Tommy Krash and Paul Baran’s U.S. military funded research to focus on using message-blocks to include network redundancy.

    The widespread urban legend that the Internet was designed to resist a nuclear attack likely arose as a result of Baran’s earlier work on packet switching, which did focus on redundancy in the face of a nuclear “holocaust.”

    Networks that led to the Internet

    ARPANET

    Promoted to the head of the information processing office at DARPA, Robert Taylor intended to realize Licklider’s ideas of an interconnected networking system. Bringing in Larry Roberts from MIT, he initiated a project to build such a network.

    The first ARPANET link was established between the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Stanford Research Institute at 22:30 hours on October 29, 1969.

    “We set up a telephone connection between us and the guys at SRI …”, Kleinrock … said in an interview: “We typed the L and we asked on the phone,

    “Do you see the L?”

    “Yes, we see the L,” came the response.

    We typed the O, and we asked, “Do you see the O.”

    “Yes, we see the O.”

    Then we typed the G, and the system crashed …

    Yet a revolution had begun” ….

    35 Years of the Internet, 1969-2004.

     Stamp of Azerbaijan, 2004.

    By December 5, 1969, a 4-node network was connected by adding the University of Utah and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Building on ideas developed in ALOHAnet, the ARPANET grew rapidly.

    By 1981, the number of hosts had grown to 213, with a new host being added approximately every twenty days.

    ARPANET development was centered around the Request for Comments (RFC) process, still used today for proposing and distributing Internet Protocols and Systems. RFC 1, entitled “Host Software”, was written by Steve Crocker from the University of California, Los Angeles, and published on April 7, 1969. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing.

    ARPANET became the technical core of what would become the Internet, and a primary tool in developing the technologies used.

    The early ARPANET used the Network Control Program (NCP, sometimes Network Control Protocol) rather than TCP/IP.

    On January 1, 1983, known as Flag Day, NCP on the ARPANET was replaced by the more flexible and powerful family of TCP/IP protocols, marking the start of the modern Internet.

    International collaborations on ARPANET were sparse.

    For various political reasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks.

    Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in 1972, followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter Kirstein’s research group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, London University and later at University College London.

    NPL

    In 1965, Donald Davies of the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) proposed a national data network based on packet-switching.

    The proposal was not taken up nationally, but by 1970 he had designed and built the Mark I packet-switched network to meet the needs of the multidisciplinary laboratory and prove the technology under operational conditions.

    By 1976 12 computers and 75 terminal devices were attached and more were added until the network was replaced in 1986.

    Merit Network

    The Merit Network was formed in 1966 as the Michigan Educational Research Information Triad to explore computer networking between three of Michigan’s public universities as a means to help the state’s educational and economic development.

    With initial support from the State of Michigan and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the packet-switched network was first demonstrated in December 1971 when an interactive host to host connection was made between the IBM mainframe computer systems at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and Wayne State University in Detroit.

    In October 1972 connections to the CDC mainframe at Michigan State University in East Lansing completed the triad. Over the next several years in addition to host to host interactive connections the network was enhanced to support terminal to host connections, host to host batch connections (remote job submission, remote printing, batch file transfer), interactive file transfer, gateways to the Tymnet and Telenet public data networks, X.25 host attachments, gateways to X.25 data networks, Ethernet attached hosts, and eventually TCP/IP and additional public universities in Michigan join the network.

    All of this set the stage for Merit’s role in the NSFNET project starting in the mid-1980s.

    CYCLADES

    The CYCLADES packet switching network was a French research network designed and directed by Louis Pouzin. First demonstrated in 1973, it was developed to explore alternatives to the initial ARPANET design and to support network research generally. It was the first network to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.

    X.25 and public data networks

    Main articles: X.25, Bulletin board system, and FidoNet

    File:ABC Clarke predicts internet and PC.ogv

    1974 ABC interview with Arthur C. Clarke, in which he describes a future of ubiquitous networked personal computers.

    Based on ARPA’s research, packet switching network standards were developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the form of X.25 and related standards.

    While using packet switching, X.25 is built on the concept of virtual circuits emulating traditional telephone connections. In 1974, X.25 formed the basis for the SERCnet network between British academic and research sites, which later became JANET. The initial ITU Standard on X.25 was approved in March 1976.

    The British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.

    By the 1990s it provided a worldwide networking infrastructure.

    Unlike ARPANET, X.25 was commonly available for business use.

    Telenet offered its Telemail electronic mail service, which was also targeted to enterprise use rather than the general email system of the ARPANET.

    The first public dial-in networks used asynchronous TTY terminal protocols to reach a concentrator operated in the public network. Some networks, such as CompuServe, used X.25 to multiplex the terminal sessions into their packet-switched backbones, while others, such as Tymnet, used proprietary protocols.

     In 1979, CompuServe became the first service to offer electronic mail capabilities and technical support to personal computer users.

    The company broke new ground again in 1980 as the first to offer real-time chat with its CB Simulator. Other major dial-in networks were America Online (AOL) and Prodigy that also provided communications, content, and entertainment features.

    Many bulletin board system (BBS) networks also provided on-line access, such as FidoNet which was popular amongst hobbyist computer users, many of them hackers and amateur radio operators.

    UUCP and Usenet

    In 1979, two students at Duke University, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, came up with the idea of using simple Bourne shell scripts to transfer news and messages on a serial line UUCP connection with nearby University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    Following public release of the software, the mesh of UUCP hosts forwarding on the Usenet news rapidly expanded. UUCPnet, as it would later be named, also created gateways and links between FidoNet and dial-up BBS hosts.

    UUCP networks spread quickly due to the lower costs involved, ability to use existing leased lines, X.25 links or even ARPANET connections, and the lack of strict use policies (commercial organizations who might provide bug fixes) compared to later networks like CSNET and Bitnet.

    All connects were local. By 1981 the number of UUCP hosts had grown to 550, nearly doubling to 940 in 1984.

     Sublink Network, operating since 1987 and officially founded in Italy in 1989, based its interconnectivity upon UUCP to redistribute mail and news groups messages throughout its Italian nodes (about 100 at the time) owned both by private individuals and small companies.

    Sublink Network represented possibly one of the first examples of the internet technology becoming progress through popular diffusion.

    Merging the networks and creating the Internet (1973–90)

    TCP/IP

    Map of the TCP/IP test network in February 1982

     Internet Protocol Suite

    With so many different network methods, something was needed to unify them. Robert E. Kahn of DARPA and ARPANET recruited Vinton Cerf of Stanford University to work with him on the problem.

    By 1973, they had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann, Gerard LeLann and Louis Pouzin (designer of the CYCLADES network) with important work on this design.

    The specification of the resulting protocol, RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, Network Working Group, December 1974, contains the first attested use of the term internet, as a shorthand for internetworking; later RFCs repeat this use, so the word started out as an adjective rather than the noun it is today.

    A Stanford Research Institute’s Packet Radio Van, site of the first three-way internetworked transmission.

    With the role of the network reduced to the bare minimum, it became possible to join almost any networks together, no matter what their characteristics were, thereby solving Kahn’s initial problem. DARPA agreed to fund development of prototype software, and after several years of work, the first demonstration of a gateway between the Packet Radio network in the SF Bay area and the ARPANET was conducted by the Stanford Research Institute.

    On November 22, 1977 a three network demonstration was conducted including the ARPANET, the SRI’s Packet Radio Van on the Packet Radio Network and the Atlantic Packet Satellite network.

    Stemming from the first specifications of TCP in 1974, TCP/IP emerged in mid-late 1978 in nearly final form. By 1981, the associated standards were published as RFCs 791, 792 and 793 and adopted for use. DARPA sponsored or encouraged the development of TCP/IP implementations for many operating systems and then scheduled a migration of all hosts on all of its packet networks to TCP/IP.

     On January 1, 1983, known as Flag Day, TCP/IP protocols became the only approved protocol on the ARPANET, replacing the earlier NCP protocol.

    From ARPANET to NSFNET

    Main articles: ARPANET and NSFNET

    BBN Technologies TCP/IP internet map early 1986

    After the ARPANET had been up and running for several years, ARPA looked for another agency to hand off the network to; ARPA’s primary mission was funding cutting edge research and development, not running a communications utility.

    Eventually, in July 1975, the network had been turned over to the Defense Communications Agency, also part of the Department of Defense.

    In 1983, the U.S. military portion of the ARPANET was broken off as a separate network, the MILNET.

     MILNET subsequently became the unclassified but military-only NIPRNET, in parallel with the SECRET-level SIPRNET and JWICS for TOP SECRET and above. NIPRNET does have controlled security gateways to the public Internet.

    The networks based on the ARPANET were government funded and therefore restricted to noncommercial uses such as research; unrelated commercial use was strictly forbidden.

    This initially restricted connections to military sites and universities.

    During the 1980s, the connections expanded to more educational institutions, and even to a growing number of companies such as Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett-Packard, which were participating in research projects or providing services to those who were.

    Several other branches of the U.S. government, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Energy (DOE) became heavily involved in Internet research and started development of a successor to ARPANET.

    In the mid-1980s, all three of these branches developed the first Wide Area Networks based on TCP/IP. NASA developed the NASA Science Network, NSF developed CSNET and DOE evolved the Energy Sciences Network or ESNet.

    T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992

    NASA developed the TCP/IP based NASA Science Network (NSN) in the mid-1980s, connecting space scientists to data and information stored anywhere in the world. In 1989, the DECnet-based Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) and the TCP/IP-based NASA Science Network (NSN) were brought together at NASA Ames Research Center creating the first multiprotocol wide area network called the NASA Science Internet, or NSI.

    NSI was established to provide a totally integrated communications infrastructure to the NASA scientific community for the advancement of earth, space and life sciences.

    As a high-speed, multiprotocol, international network, NSI provided connectivity to over 20,000 scientists across all seven continents.

    In 1981 NSF supported the development of the Computer Science Network (CSNET). CSNET connected with ARPANET using TCP/IP, and ran TCP/IP over X.25, but it also supported departments without sophisticated network connections, using automated dial-up mail exchange.

    Its experience with CSNET lead NSF to use TCP/IP when it created NSFNET, a 56 kbit/s backbone established in 1986, to support the NSF sponsored supercomputing centers. The NSFNET Project also provided support for the creation of regional research and education networks in the United States and for the connection of university and college campus networks to the regional networks.

    The use of NSFNET and the regional networks was not limited to supercomputer users and the 56 kbit/s network quickly became overloaded. NSFNET was upgraded to 1.5 Mbit/s in 1988 under a cooperative agreement with the Merit Network in partnership with IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan.

    The existence of NSFNET and the creation of Federal Internet Exchanges (FIXes) allowed the ARPANET to be decommissioned in 1990. NSFNET was expanded and upgraded to 45 Mbit/s in 1991, and was decommissioned in 1995 when it was replaced by backbones operated by several commercial Internet Service Providers.

    Transition towards the Internet

    The term “internet” was adopted in the first RFC published on the TCP protocol (RFC 675:

     Internet Transmission Control Program, December 1974, as an abbreviation of the term internetworking and the two terms were used interchangeably.

    In general, an internet was any network using TCP/IP.

     It was around the time when ARPANET was interlinked with NSFNET in the late 1980s, that the term was used as the name of the network, Internet, being the large and global TCP/IP network.

    As interest in widespread networking grew and new applications for it were developed, the Internet’s technologies spread throughout the rest of the world. The network-agnostic approach in TCP/IP meant that it was easy to use any existing network infrastructure, such as the IPSS X.25 network, to carry Internet traffic. In 1984, University College London replaced its transatlantic satellite links with TCP/IP over IPSS.

    Many sites unable to link directly to the Internet started to create simple gateways to allow transfer of email, at that time the most important application.

    Sites which only had intermittent connections used UUCP or FidoNet and relied on the gateways between these networks and the Internet. Some gateway services went beyond simple email peering, such as allowing access to FTP sites via UUCP or email.

    Finally, the Internet’s remaining centralized routing aspects were removed. The EGP routing protocol was replaced by a new protocol, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

    This turned the Internet into a meshed topology and moved away from the centric architecture which ARPANET had emphasized. In 1994, Classless Inter-Domain Routing was introduced to support better conservation of address space which allowed use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables.

    TCP/IP goes global (1989–2010)

    CERN, the European Internet, the link to the Pacific and beyond

    Between 1984 and 1988 CERN began installation and operation of TCP/IP to interconnect its major internal computer systems, workstations, PCs and an accelerator control system. CERN continued to operate a limited self-developed system (CERNET) internally and several incompatible (typically proprietary) network protocols externally. There was considerable resistance in Europe towards more widespread use of TCP/IP, and the CERN TCP/IP intranets remained isolated from the Internet until 1989.

    In 1988, Daniel Karrenberg, from Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, visited Ben Segal, CERN’s TCP/IP Coordinator, looking for advice about the transition of the European side of the UUCP Usenet network (much of which ran over X.25 links) over to TCP/IP. In 1987, Ben Segal had met with Len Bosack from the then still small company Cisco about purchasing some TCP/IP routers for CERN, and was able to give Karrenberg advice and forward him on to Cisco for the appropriate hardware. This expanded the European portion of the Internet across the existing UUCP networks, and in 1989 CERN opened its first external TCP/IP connections.

    This coincided with the creation of Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE), initially a group of IP network administrators who met regularly to carry out co-ordination work together. Later, in 1992, RIPE was formally registered as a cooperative in Amsterdam.

    At the same time as the rise of internetworking in Europe, ad hoc networking to ARPA and in-between Australian universities formed, based on various technologies such as X.25 and UUCPNet.

    These were limited in their connection to the global networks, due to the cost of making individual international UUCP dial-up or X.25 connections. In 1989, Australian universities joined the push towards using IP protocols to unify their networking infrastructures.

    AARNet was formed in 1989 by the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee and provided a dedicated IP based network for Australia.

    The Internet began to penetrate Asia in the late 1980s.

    Japan, which had built the UUCP-based network JUNET in 1984, connected to NSFNET in 1989. It hosted the annual meeting of the Internet Society, INET’92, in Kobe. Singapore developed TECHNET in 1990, and Thailand gained a global Internet connection between Chulalongkorn University and UUNET in 1992.

    Global digital divide

    Internet users in 2012 as a percentage of a country’s population

    Source: International Telecommunications Union.

    Global digital divide and Digital divide

    Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012

    As a percentage of a country’s population

    Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012 as a percentage of a country’s population

    Source: International Telecommunications Union.

    While developed countries with technological infrastructures were joining the Internet, developing countries began to experience a digital divide separating them from the Internet. On an essentially continental basis, they are building organizations for Internet resource administration and sharing operational experience, as more and more transmission facilities go into place.

    Africa

    At the beginning of the 1990s, African countries relied upon X.25 IPSS and 2400 baud modem UUCP links for international and internetwork computer communications.

    In August 1995, InfoMail Uganda, Ltd., a privately held firm in Kampala now known as InfoCom, and NSN Network Services of Avon, Colorado, sold in 1997 and now known as Clear Channel Satellite, established Africa’s first native TCP/IP high-speed satellite Internet services.

    The data connection was originally carried by a C-Band RSCC Russian satellite which connected InfoMail’s Kampala offices directly to NSN’s MAE-West point of presence using a private network from NSN’s leased ground station in New Jersey.

    InfoCom’s first satellite connection was just 64 kbit/s, serving a Sun host computer and twelve US Robotics dial-up modems.

    In 1996, a USAID funded project, the Leland Initiative, started work on developing full Internet connectivity for the continent. Guinea, Mozambique, Madagascar and Rwanda gained satellite earth stations in 1997, followed by Côte d’Ivoire and Benin in 1998.

    Africa is building an Internet infrastructure. AfriNIC, headquartered in Mauritius, manages IP address allocation for the continent. As do the other Internet regions, there is an operational forum, the Internet Community of Operational Networking Specialists.

    There are many programs to provide high-performance transmission plant, and the western and southern coasts have undersea optical cable. High-speed cables join North Africa and the Horn of Africa to intercontinental cable systems. Undersea cable development is slower for East Africa; the original joint effort between New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the East Africa Submarine System (Eassy) has broken off and may become two efforts.

    Asia and Oceania

    The Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), headquartered in Australia, manages IP address allocation for the continent. APNIC sponsors an operational forum, the Asia-Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies (APRICOT).

    In 1991, the People’s Republic of China saw its first TCP/IP college network, Tsinghua University’s TUNET. The PRC went on to make its first global Internet connection in 1994, between the Beijing Electro-Spectrometer Collaboration and Stanford University’s Linear Accelerator Center. However, China went on to implement its own digital divide by implementing a country-wide content filter.

    Latin America

    As with the other regions, the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC) manages the IP address space and other resources for its area. LACNIC, headquartered in Uruguay, operates DNS root, reverse DNS, and other key services.

    Opening the network to commerce

    The interest in commercial use of the Internet became a hotly debated topic. Although commercial use was forbidden, the exact definition of commercial use could be unclear and subjective. UUCPNet and the X.25 IPSS had no such restrictions, which would eventually see the official barring of UUCPNet use of ARPANET and NSFNET connections. Some UUCP links still remained connecting to these networks however, as administrators cast a blind eye to their operation.

    Number of Internet hosts worldwide: 1981–2012

    Source: Internet Systems Consortium.

    During the late 1980s, the first Internet service provider (ISP) companies were formed. Companies like PSINet, UUNET, Netcom, and Portal Software were formed to provide service to the regional research networks and provide alternate network access, UUCP-based email and Usenet News to the public. The first commercial dialup ISP in the United States was The World, which opened in 1989.

    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed the Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1862(g), which allowed NSF to support access by the research and education communities to computer networks which were not used exclusively for research and education purposes, thus permitting NSFNET to interconnect with commercial networks.

    This caused controversy within the research and education community, who were concerned commercial use of the network, might lead to an Internet that was less responsive to their needs, and within the community of commercial network providers, who felt that government subsidies were giving an unfair advantage to some organizations.

    By 1990, ARPANET had been overtaken and replaced by newer networking technologies and the project came to a close. New network service providers including PSINet, Alternet, CERFNet, ANS CO+RE, and many others were offering network access to commercial customers. NSFNET was no longer the de facto backbone and exchange point for Internet. The Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX), Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs), and later Network Access Points (NAPs) were becoming the primary interconnections between many networks. The final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic ended on April 30, 1995 when the National Science Foundation ended its sponsorship of the NSFNET Backbone Service and the service ended.

    NSF provided initial support for the NAPs and interim support to help the regional research and education networks transition to commercial ISPs.

    NSF also sponsored the very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) which continued to provide support for the supercomputing centers and research and education in the United States.

    Networking in outer space

     Interplanetary Internet

    The first live Internet link into low earth orbit was established on January 22, 2010 when astronaut T. J. Creamer posted the first unassisted update to his Twitter account from the International Space Station, marking the extension of the Internet into space.

    Astronauts at the ISS had used email and Twitter before, but these messages had been relayed to the ground through a NASA data link before being posted by a human proxy.

    This personal Web access, which NASA calls the Crew Support LAN, uses the space station’s high-speed Ku band microwave link. To surf the Web, astronauts can use a station laptop computer to control a desktop computer on Earth, and they can talk to their families and friends on Earth using Voice over IP equipment.

    Communication with spacecraft beyond earth orbit has traditionally been over point-to-point links through the Deep Space Network.

    Each such data link must be manually scheduled and configured.

    In the late 1990s NASA and Google began working on a new network protocol, Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) which automates this process, allows networking of spaceborne transmission nodes, and takes the fact into account that spacecraft can temporarily lose contact because they move behind the Moon or planets, or because space “weather” disrupts the connection. Under such conditions, DTN retransmits data packages instead of dropping them, as the standard TCP/IP internet protocol does. NASA conducted the first field test of what it calls the “deep space internet” in November 2008.

    Testing of DTN-based communications between the International Space Station and Earth (now termed Disruption-Tolerant Networking) has been ongoing since March 2009, and is scheduled to continue until March 2014.

    This network technology is supposed to ultimately enable missions that involve multiple spacecraft where reliable inter-vessel communication might take precedence over vessel-to-earth downlinks. According to a February 2011 statement by Google’s Vint Cerf, the so-called “Bundle protocols” have been uploaded to NASA’s EPOXI mission spacecraft (which is in orbit around the Sun) and communication with Earth has been tested at a distance of approximately 80 light seconds.

    Internet governance

    As a globally distributed network of voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks, the Internet operates without a central governing body. It has no centralized governance for either technology or policies, and each constituent network chooses what technologies and protocols it will deploy from the voluntary technical standards that are developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

     However, throughout its entire history, the Internet system has had an “Internet Assigned Numbers Authority” (IANA) for the allocation and assignment of various technical identifiers needed for the operation of the Internet.

    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) provides oversight and coordination for two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System.

    NIC, InterNIC, IANA and ICANN

    InterNIC, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, and ICANN

    The IANA function was originally performed by USC Information Sciences Institute, and it delegated portions of this responsibility with respect to numeric network and autonomous system identifiers to the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI International) in Menlo Park, California. In addition to his role as the RFC Editor, Jon Postel worked as the manager of IANA until his death in 1998.

    As the early ARPANET grew, hosts were referred to by names, and a HOSTS.TXT file would be distributed from SRI International to each host on the network. As the network grew, this became cumbersome. A technical solution came in the form of the Domain Name System, created by Paul Mockapetris.

    The Defense Data Network—Network Information Center (DDN-NIC) at SRI handled all registration services, including the top-level domains (TLDs) of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, .net, .com and .us, root nameserver administration and Internet number assignments under a United States Department of Defense contract.

     In 1991, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) awarded the administration and maintenance of DDN-NIC (managed by SRI up until this point) to Government Systems, Inc., who subcontracted it to the small private-sector Network Solutions, Inc.

    The increasing cultural diversity of the Internet also posed administrative challenges for centralized management of the IP addresses.

    In October 1992, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) published RFC 1366, which described the “growth of the Internet and its increasing globalization” and set out the basis for an evolution of the IP registry process, based on a regionally distributed registry model.

    This document stressed the need for a single Internet number registry to exist in each geographical region of the world (which would be of “continental dimensions”). Registries would be “unbiased and widely recognized by network providers and subscribers” within their region. The RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) was established as the first RIR in May 1992.

    The second RIR, the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), was established in Tokyo in 1993, as a pilot project of the Asia Pacific Networking Group.

    Since at this point in history most of the growth on the Internet was coming from non-military sources, it was decided that the Department of Defense would no longer fund registration services outside of the .mil TLD.

    In 1993 the U.S. National Science Foundation, after a competitive bidding process in 1992, created the InterNIC to manage the allocations of addresses and management of the address databases, and awarded the contract to three organizations.

    Registration Services would be provided by Network Solutions; Directory and Database Services would be provided by AT&T; and Information Services would be provided by General Atomics.

    Over time, after consultation with the IANA, the IETF, RIPE NCC, APNIC, and the Federal Networking Council (FNC), the decision was made to separate the management of domain names from the management of IP numbers.

    Following the examples of RIPE NCC and APNIC, it was recommended that management of IP address space then administered by the InterNIC should be under the control of those that use it, specifically the ISPs, end-user organizations, corporate entities, universities, and individuals. As a result, the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) was established as in December 1997, as an independent, not-for-profit corporation by direction of the National Science Foundation and became the third Regional Internet Registry.

    In 1998, both the IANA and remaining DNS-related InterNIC functions were reorganized under the control of ICANN, a California non-profit corporation contracted by the United States Department of Commerce to manage a number of Internet-related tasks. As these tasks involved technical coordination for two principal Internet name spaces (DNS names and IP addresses) created by the IETF, ICANN also signed a memorandum of understanding with the IAB to define the technical work to be carried out by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

    The management of Internet address space remained with the regional Internet registries, which collectively were defined as a supporting organization within the ICANN structure.

    ICANN provides central coordination for the DNS system, including policy coordination for the split registry / registrar system, with competition among registry service providers to serve each top-level-domain and multiple competing registrars offering DNS services to end-users.

    Internet Engineering Task Force

    The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the largest and most visible of several loosely related ad-hoc groups that provide technical direction for the Internet, including the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

    The IETF is a loosely self-organized group of international volunteers who contribute to the engineering and evolution of Internet technologies. It is the principal body engaged in the development of new Internet standard specifications.

    Much of the IETF’s work is done in Working Groups.

    It does not “run the Internet”, despite what some people might mistakenly say. The IETF does make voluntary standards that are often adopted by Internet users, but it does not control, or even patrol, the Internet.

    The IETF started in January 1986 as a quarterly meeting of U.S. government funded researchers. Non-government representatives were invited starting with the fourth IETF meeting in October 1986.

    The concept of Working Groups was introduced at the fifth IETF meeting in February 1987.

    The seventh IETF meeting in July 1987 was the first meeting with more than 100 attendees. In 1992, the Internet Society, a professional membership society, was formed and IETF began to operate under it as an independent international standards body. The first IETF meeting outside of the United States was held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 1993.

    Today the IETF meets three times a year and attendance is often about 1,300 people, but has been as high as 2,000 upon occasion.

    Typically one in three IETF meetings is held in Europe or Asia. The number of non-US attendees is roughly 50%, even at meetings held in the United States.

    The IETF is unusual in that it exists as a collection of happenings, but is not a corporation and has no board of directors, no members, and no dues.

    The closest thing there is to being an IETF member is being on the IETF or a Working Group mailing list. IETF volunteers come from all over the world and from many different parts of the Internet community. The IETF works closely with and under the supervision of the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).

    The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG), peer activities to the IETF and IESG under the general supervision of the IAB, focus on longer term research issues.

    Request for Comments

    Request for Comments (RFCs) are the main documentation for the work of the IAB, IESG, IETF, and IRTF. RFC 1, “Host Software”, was written by Steve Crocker at UCLA in April 1969, well before the IETF was created. Originally they were technical memos documenting aspects of ARPANET development and were edited by Jon Postel, the first RFC Editor.

    RFCs cover a wide range of information from proposed standards, draft standards, full standards, best practices, experimental protocols, history, and other informational topics.

    RFCs can be written by individuals or informal groups of individuals, but many are the product of a more formal Working Group. Drafts are submitted to the IESG either by individuals or by the Working Group Chair. An RFC Editor, appointed by the IAB, separate from IANA, and working in conjunction with the IESG, receives drafts from the IESG and edits, formats, and publishes them. Once an RFC is published, it is never revised. If the standard it describes changes or its information becomes obsolete, the revised standard or updated information will be re-published as a new RFC that “obsoletes” the original.

    The Internet Society

    The Internet Society or ISOC is an international, nonprofit organization founded during 1992 to “to assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world”.

    With offices near Washington, DC, USA, and in Geneva, Switzerland, ISOC has a membership base comprising more than 80 organizational and more than 50,000 individual members.

    Members also form “chapters” based on either common geographical location or special interests.

    There are currently more than 90 chapters around the world.

    ISOC provides financial and organizational support to and promotes the work of the standards settings bodies for which it is the organizational home: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). ISOC also promotes understanding and appreciation of the Internet model of open, transparent processes and consensus-based decision making.

    Globalization and Internet governance in the 21st century

    Since the 1990s, the Internet’s governance and organization has been of global importance to governments, commerce, civil society, and individuals.

    The organizations which held control of certain technical aspects of the Internet were the successors of the old ARPANET oversight and the current decision-makers in the day-to-day technical aspects of the network.

    While recognized as the administrators of certain aspects of the Internet, their roles and their decision making authority are limited and subject to increasing international scrutiny and increasing objections.

    These objections have led to the ICANN removing themselves from relationships with first the University of Southern California in 2000, and finally in September 2009, gaining autonomy from the US government by the ending of its longstanding agreements, although some contractual obligations with the U.S. Department of Commerce continued.

    The IETF, with financial and organizational support from the Internet Society, continues to serve as the Internet’s ad-hoc standards body and issues Request for Comments.

    In November 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, called for an Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to be convened by United Nations Secretary General. The IGF opened an ongoing, non-binding conversation among stakeholders representing governments, the private sector, civil society, and the technical and academic communities about the future of Internet governance. The first IGF meeting was held in October/November 2006 with follow up meetings annually thereafter.

    Since WSIS, the term “Internet governance” has been broadened beyond narrow technical concerns to include a wider range of Internet-related policy issues.

    Use and culture

    Sociology of the Internet

    Email and Usenet

     Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, and Usenet

    Email is often called the killer application of the Internet. However, it actually predates the Internet and was a crucial tool in creating it.

    Email started in 1965 as a way for multiple users of a time-sharing mainframe computer to communicate. Although the history is unclear, among the first systems to have such a facility were SDC’s Q32 and MIT’s CTSS.

    The ARPANET computer network made a large contribution to the evolution of email.

    There is one report indicating experimental inter-system email transfers on it shortly after ARPANET’s creation. In 1971 Ray Tomlinson created what was to become the standard Internet email address format, using the @ sign to separate user names from host names.

    A number of protocols were developed to deliver messages among groups of time-sharing computers over alternative transmission systems, such as UUCP and IBM’s VNET email system. Email could be passed this way between a number of networks, including ARPANET, BITNET and NSFNET, as well as to hosts connected directly to other sites via UUCP. See the history of SMTP protocol.

    In addition, UUCP allowed the publication of text files that could be read by many others. The News software developed by Steve Daniel and Tom Truscott in 1979 was used to distribute news and bulletin board-like messages. This quickly grew into discussion groups, known as newsgroups, on a wide range of topics. On ARPANET and NSFNET similar discussion groups would form via mailing lists, discussing both technical issues and more culturally focused topics (such as science fiction, discussed on the sflovers mailing list).

    During the early years of the Internet, email and similar mechanisms were also fundamental to allow people to access resources that were not available due to the absence of online connectivity. UUCP was often used to distribute files using the ‘alt.binary’ groups. Also, FTP e-mail gateways allowed people that lived outside the US and Europe to download files using ftp commands written inside email messages.

    The file was encoded, broken in pieces and sent by email; the receiver had to reassemble and decode it later, and it was the only way for people living overseas to download items such as the earlier Linux versions using the slow dial-up connections available at the time. After the popularization of the Web and the HTTP protocol such tools were slowly abandoned.

    From Gopher to the WWW

    History of the World Wide Web and World Wide Web

    As the Internet grew through the 1980s and early 1990s, many people realized the increasing need to be able to find and organize files and information.

    Projects such as Archie, Gopher, WAIS, and the FTP Archive list attempted to create ways to organize distributed data. In the early 1990s, Gopher, invented by Mark P. McCahill offered a viable alternative to the World Wide Web.

    However, by the mid-1990s it became clear that Gopher and the other projects fell short in being able to accommodate all the existing data types and in being able to grow without bottlenecks.

    One of the most promising user interface paradigms during this period was hypertext.

    The technology had been inspired by Vannevar Bush’s “Memex” and developed through Ted Nelson’s research on Project Xanadu and Douglas Engelbart’s research on NLS.

    Many small self-contained hypertext systems had been created before, such as Apple Computer’s HyperCard (1987). Gopher became the first commonly used hypertext interface to the Internet. While Gopher menu items were examples of hypertext, they were not commonly perceived in that way.

    This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world’s first Web server.

    In 1989, while working at CERN, Tim Berners-Lee invented a network-based implementation of the hypertext concept. By releasing his invention to public use, he ensured the technology would become widespread.

    For his work in developing the World Wide Web, Berners-Lee received the Millennium technology prize in 2004.

    One early popular web browser, modeled after HyperCard, was ViolaWWW.

    A turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, a funding program initiated by the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 also known as the Gore Bill.

     Mosaic’s graphical interface soon became more popular than Gopher, which at the time was primarily text-based, and the WWW became the preferred interface for accessing the Internet. (Gore’s reference to his role in “creating the Internet”, however, was ridiculed in his presidential election campaign. See the full article Al Gore and information technology).

    Mosaic was eventually superseded in 1994 by Andreessen’s Netscape Navigator, which replaced Mosaic as the world’s most popular browser.

    While it held this title for some time, eventually competition from Internet Explorer and a variety of other browsers almost completely displaced it. Another important event held on January 11, 1994, was The Superhighway Summit at UCLA’s Royce Hall.

    This was the “first public conference bringing together all of the major industry, government and academic leaders in the field and also began the national dialogue about the Information Superhighway and its implications.”

    24 Hours in Cyberspace, “the largest one-day online event” (February 8, 1996) up to that date, took place on the then-active website, cyber24.com. It was headed by photographer Rick Smolan.

    A photographic exhibition was unveiled at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History on January 23, 1997, featuring 70 photos from the project.

    Search engines

    Search engine (computing)

    A list of important Internet projects on the web indicating how the web has evolved over the past several years

    Even before the World Wide Web, there were search engines that attempted to organize the Internet. The first of these was the Archie search engine from McGill University in 1990, followed in 1991 by WAIS and Gopher. All three of those systems predated the invention of the World Wide Web but all continued to index the Web and the rest of the Internet for several years after the Web appeared. There are still Gopher servers as of 2006, although there are a great many more web servers.

    As the Web grew, search engines and Web directories were created to track pages on the Web and allow people to find things.

    The first full-text Web search engine was WebCrawler in 1994.

    Before WebCrawler, only Web page titles were searched. Another early search engine, Lycos, was created in 1993 as a university project, and was the first to achieve commercial success. During the late 1990s, both Web directories and Web search engines were popular—Yahoo! (founded 1994) and Altavista (founded 1995) were the respective industry leaders. By August 2001, the directory model had begun to give way to search engines, tracking the rise of Google (founded 1998), which had developed new approaches to relevancy ranking. Directory features, while still commonly available, became after-thoughts to search engines.

    Database size, which had been a significant marketing feature through the early 2000s, was similarly displaced by emphasis on relevancy ranking, the methods by which search engines attempt to sort the best results first. Relevancy ranking first became a major issue circa 1996, when it became apparent that it was impractical to review full lists of results. Consequently, algorithms for relevancy ranking have continuously improved. Google’s PageRank method for ordering the results has received the most press, but all major search engines continually refine their ranking methodologies with a view toward improving the ordering of results.

    As of 2006, search engine rankings are more important than ever, so much so that an industry has developed (“search engine optimizers”, or “SEO”) to help web-developers improve their search ranking, and an entire body of case law has developed around matters that affect search engine rankings, such as use of trademarks in metatags. The sale of search rankings by some search engines has also created controversy among librarians and consumer advocates.

    On June 3, 2009, Microsoft launched its new search engine, Bing.

    The following month Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would power Yahoo! Search.

    File sharing

    Peer-to-peer file sharing and Timeline of file sharing

    Resource or file sharing has been an important activity on computer networks from well before the Internet was established and was supported in a variety of ways including bulletin board systems (1978), Usenet (1980), Kermit (1981), and many others. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for use on the Internet was standardized in 1985 and is still in use today.

    A variety of tools were developed to aid the use of FTP by helping users discover files they might want to transfer, including the Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) in 1991, Gopher in 1991, Archie in 1991, Veronica in 1992, Jughead in 1993, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) in 1988, and eventually the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1991 with Web directories and Web search engines.

    In 1999, Napster became the first peer-to-peer file sharing system.

    Napster used a central server for indexing and peer discovery, but the storage and transfer of files was decentralized. A variety of peer-to-peer file sharing programs and services with different levels of decentralization and anonymity followed, including: Gnutella, eDonkey2000, and Freenet in 2000, FastTrack, Kazaa, Limewire, and BitTorrent in 2001, and Poisoned in 2003.

    All of these tools are general purpose and can be used to share a wide variety of content, but sharing of music files, software, and later movies and videos are major uses. While some of this sharing is legal, large portions are not. Lawsuits and other legal actions caused Napster in 2001, eDonkey2000 in 2005, Kazza in 2006, and Limewire in 2010 to shut down or refocus their efforts.

    The Pirate Bay, founded in Sweden in 2003, continues despite a trial and appeal in 2009 and 2010 that resulted in jail terms and large fines for several of its founders.

    File sharing remains contentious and controversial with charges of theft of intellectual property on the one hand and charges of censorship on the other.

    Dot-com bubble

    Suddenly the low price of reaching millions worldwide, and the possibility of selling to or hearing from those people at the same moment when they were reached, promised to overturn established business dogma in advertising, mail-order sales, customer relationship management, and many more areas. The web was a new killer app—it could bring together unrelated buyers and sellers in seamless and low-cost ways. Entrepreneurs around the world developed new business models, and ran to their nearest venture capitalist. While some of the new entrepreneurs had experience in business and economics, the majority were simply people with ideas, and did not manage the capital influx prudently. Additionally, many dot-com business plans were predicated on the assumption that by using the Internet, they would bypass the distribution channels of existing businesses and therefore not have to compete with them; when the established businesses with strong existing brands developed their own Internet presence, these hopes were shattered, and the newcomers were left attempting to break into markets dominated by larger, more established businesses. Many did not have the ability to do so.

    The dot-com bubble burst in March 2000, with the technology heavy NASDAQ Composite index peaking at 5,048.62 on March 10 (5,132.52 intraday), more than double its value just a year before. By 2001, the bubble’s deflation was running full speed. A majority of the dot-coms had ceased trading, after having burnt through their venture capital and IPO capital, often without ever making a profit. But despite this, the Internet continues to grow, driven by commerce, ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge and social networking.

    Mobile phones and the Internet

    See also: Mobile Web

    The first mobile phone with Internet connectivity was the Nokia 9000 Communicator, launched in Finland in 1996. The viability of Internet services access on mobile phones was limited until prices came down from that model and network providers started to develop systems and services conveniently accessible on phones.

    NTT DoCoMo in Japan launched the first mobile Internet service, i-mode, in 1999 and this is considered the birth of the mobile phone Internet services. In 2001, the mobile phone email system by Research in Motion for their BlackBerry product was launched in America. To make efficient use of the small screen and tiny keypad and one-handed operation typical of mobile phones, a specific document and networking model was created for mobile devices, the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). Most mobile device Internet services operate using WAP. The growth of mobile phone services was initially a primarily Asian phenomenon with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan all soon finding the majority of their Internet users accessing resources by phone rather than by PC.

    Developing countries followed, with India, South Africa, Kenya, Philippines, and Pakistan all reporting that the majority of their domestic users accessed the Internet from a mobile phone rather than a PC. The European and North American use of the Internet was influenced by a large installed base of personal computers, and the growth of mobile phone Internet access was more gradual, but had reached national penetration levels of 20–30% in most Western countries.

    The cross-over occurred in 2008, when more Internet access devices were mobile phones than personal computers. In many parts of the developing world, the ratio is as much as 10 mobile phone users to one PC user.

    Online population forecast

    See also: Global Internet usage

    Internet users per 100 inhabitants

    Source: International Telecommunications Union.

    A study conducted by Jupiter Research anticipates that a 38 percent increase in the number of people with online access will mean that, by 2011, 22 percent of the Earth’s population will surf the Internet regularly. The report says 1.1 billion people have regular Web access. For the study, Jupiter Research defined online users as people who regularly access the Internet from dedicated Internet-access devices, which exclude cellular telephones.

    Historiography

    Some concerns have been raised over the historiography of the Internet’s development. The process of digitization represents a twofold challenge both for historiography in general and, in particular, for historical communication research.

    Specifically that it is hard to find documentation of much of the Internet’s development, for several reasons, including a lack of centralized documentation for much of the early developments that led to the Internet. “The Arpanet period is somewhat well documented because the corporation in charge – BBN – left a physical record. Moving into the NSFNET era, it became an extraordinarily decentralized process. The record exists in people’s basements, in closets.  So much of what happened was done verbally and on the basis of individual trust.”—Doug Gale (2007)

    The Information on the Author Social Entrepreneur and Founder of the ACO ~Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Universal Life Church for ET Spirits…

    Theresa J. Thurmond Morris

    Bio

    Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Theresa’s family knows her as Jan and professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. Theresa shares UNESCO with Art, Culture, Education, Science, Technology, History, Math, Engineering, and Folklife Interest. TJ is now a spiritual life coach and Guide with her own esoteric metaphysical view of life. TJ believes we are all her to share our spiritual paths with others while we teach of other dimensions we all share. Life is a journey and not a destination and shares we are all the author of our own life story. TJ has had extraordinary life experiences including that as an ET Contactee, Out of Body, and Near Death Experiences which allowed her to question life and how our minds work with our soul’s essence.

    TJ is devoting her life to the research of how the mind works in relation to the extraterrestrials who visit her in person and through what we call extra-sensory-perception as ESP. There are nuclear physicists working on the same energy and education that TJ has to offer for future discoveries about our involvement with ET.

    TJ has had various sightings in AL, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, HI, IL, KY,LA, NV,NY, TX and cross country while over the road. TJ now has had contact and experiences where she now lives in KY. TJ has been in constant contact since a child, teen, adult, and now in her later years. TJ now shares her experiences to assist others who are learning to live with UFO sightings and expanding awareness that alien civilizations exist. Tj believes in the Ascension Centered Enlightened Beings in us all. TJ is now happy to be a writer and shares her metaphysical esoteric spiritual point of view through her books. TJ is also a book doctor and editor for over 9 authors and TJ contributes as a syndicated journalist to various websites, blogs, links and rss feeds. TJ’s salutation is Love and Light and believes we are all to share in life together to better ourselves as essence while gaining wisdom. TJ’s books are available on Amazon.com. TJ can be reached at Lulu.com and on her personal websites which can be Googled by her various name and initials for her organizations.

    TJ MORRIS tm ACIR sm – WEBSITES

    PsychicSouls.Info, TJMorrispsychic.NET

     There is Theresa’s ACIR.US, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, Anewnews.com, AscensionCenter.org, Etspirit.org, OhioCountyKentucky.net, and PsychicSouls.Info. SocialParanormal.com, TJMorris.ORG, Theresa Morris.NET, TJMorris.US, TJMorrisPublishing.US, TJMorrisPsychic.net

    Email her at Theresa@PsychicSouls.info, MsTJMorris@aol.com, or Twitter.com/TJTM and Facebook.com/TheresaMorris. If you are interested in becoming a MEMBER of our ET UFO Community which is now represented through affiliation with TJ Morris & Friends, please see our WEBSITES – There are ways to join them in WordPress. We use apache language.

     All websites are paid for and sponsored by TJ herself. TJ is a Patroness of the Arts, Culture, Education, Science, Technology, Folklife (Archaeology) and History.

    TJ is a natural born leader which is so noted in astrology as she is a Capricorn with Aquarius rising in her Astrological Chart. TJ is believes in living a balanced ascension centered enlightened life as a spiritual intellectual and shares her essence and energy and sometimes funding and creations with those who are in alignment with her own endorsements and beliefs as a patron and leader in the discoveries of the future minds of the world. TJ has been associated with many famous people in her time on earth and began on television at age of 3 years and while in grade school was on TV weekly. She is an extrovert to some and believed to be an introvert to others. TJ enjoys psychic science and neuro science and shares brain training and spiritual training as part of being a well-balanced humanoid in body-mind-spirit in the birth-life-death experience which is her faith. TJ is not a religious person but is considered an Avatar Ascension Master having master all 33 Ancient Mystery School levels including surviving life after death in this lifetime not only as an experienced believer in reincarnation with this being her ninth and final return to this planet. TJ believes that alien civilizations exist and says this is her religion if anyone bothers to ask her religion she is a declared Ascension Age Avatar Master Minister of the Shamanic Healing Arts. TJ believes in creative design and reincarnation for the soul.

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    Theresa J Morris

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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • An Open Letter to Barack Obama on the State of the Union

    2/16/2014
    Dear Mr. President:
    Why are you out to destroy the country in every way possible? I’m an investigative journalist and make it my business to follow every piece of news possible in my genre of interest. Politics just happens to be one of my interests of which I have been following for decades.
    Since you were initially elected and especially, after your last State Of The Union address more and more people are realizing you simply do not have the best interests in mind for the American people in particular and the whole country in general.
    Your last SOTU address sounded more like something expected from a Socialist Dictator, rather than a United States President.
    You have managed, through Executive Action to completely gut the US Constitution and rule the country rather than preside as President under the terms of the Oath of Office you took each time you were elected.
    Actually, you should just go to the Rotunda of the National Archives building and tear the original Constitution up into hundreds of pieces and make it official.
    I listened to your last SOTU and could not find a single portion of it that would benefit the people. Instead, it was filled with threats of Executive Action, bypassing Congress if they happened to disagree with your desired policy. This in itself shows your blatant disrespect for Constitutional law.
    You sugar coated the unemployment problem by painting a rosy picture of it being better now than at any time since you were elected. What you neglected to mention is the fact that your numbers reflect only those currently receiving unemployment insurance benefits and not those still unemployed whose benefits have run out long ago. If you had counted the total number of people unemployed in this country, the numbers would have been astronomically higher.
    Rather than make yourself look good by pressuring for a minimum wage raise that would destroy many businesses who could not afford it and turn many full time jobs into part time positions, you should do the right thing by creating an economic situation which would open new opportunities for jobs. Instead, you choose to degrade the overall economy and depress the job market by your desire to give amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants and follow a dream of a green economy based on the global warming myth.
    Not too long ago, I’m sure you remember, our young people of junior high and high school age could learn a little responsibility in becoming adults by getting summer jobs. Due to the massive amount of unskilled illegal immigrants here in this country, this is now an impossibility in most parts of the country. These much needed jobs for growth in our young people simply do not exist.
    There are many unskilled adult workers not able to find jobs because of this same reason. Many adults who used to work in the food service industry cannot find a job today, because illegal immigrants have taken them.
    Your idea of high tech jobs is unrealistic because it will always be the unskilled workers of America who make up the bulk of the employed.
    An example of your disastrous economic policy is the city of Detroit. Here, we have so many unemployed that many parts of the city look more like a scene out of a Mad Max movie. This is basically, because you have chosen to ruin the economy by a crippling environmental stance which has already destroyed our industrial complex. This, as well as your backroom trade agreements which shift more jobs overseas.
    Getting back to your insidious policy of reducing CO2 levels based on what you say is settled science of global warming/climate change is the most degrading yet to an already lousy economy. This boils down to making it more expensive to do business here in the US and makes us much more dependent on foreign oil.
    The truth of the matter is these so called high levels of CO2 being recorded comes from IPCC, WMO, and other climate related bodies of the UN who deliberately place these monitoring stations in areas where high concentrations of CO2 such as near fault lines, volcanoes, under water sea mounds, and areas where CO2 is naturally produced.
    It may interest you to know that CO2 is an inert gas in the overall composition of the atmosphere comprising only less that 1% of 1%. This is true today, not hundreds of years ago.
    There are two scenarios involved in your GW/CC policy. Either you are completely out of the loop on climate science, or you are blatantly out to destroy what is left of the economy. I lean to you blatantly being out to destroy the economy since you must know the facts verses the fiction involved here.
    You mentioned in the SOTU speech areas of the US were flooded by rising seas caused by GW/CC. Just where are these flooded areas, Mr. President? I’m not seeing them and neither is anyone else. Do not humor me by mentioning areas that get flooded by storm surges from hurricanes or strong storm systems because this has been happening since the earth has had an atmosphere.
    Your old pal Al Gore apparently, isn’t worried about rising ocean levels either since he bought a multimillion dollar beach front home in Santa Barbara, California a few years ago.
    Your proclamation that the science is settled is the biggest lie yet. It is Mr. President, because the whole idea of climate change comes from organizations employing people who are unqualified to assess climate science. In the IPCC, there exists only one or two actual meteorologists, the rest are highly educated environmentalists in genres unrelated to climate, weather, or climate related geophysics.
    The World Meteorological Organization isn’t any better with both the President David Grimes and Secretary General Michel Jarraud only being honorary meteorologists masquerading as actual meteorologists.
    The people residing in power at the UN overseeing GW/CC gets better with the Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change having only a degree in economics. This woman is heading all the UN climate organizations and yet she has no degree in meteorology. It’s astounding that a President of the United States would even listen to what these people are saying much less than take their word as concrete proof.
    What you are doing is like expecting someone with cancer to go to an attorney for medical help or asking them to visit a medical doctor for a mechanical problem with their car.
    All of these so called climate experts you put your faith in have been wrong at every turn. They have said the last decade has been the hottest on record. Then they revise their statement be saying it isn’t because no evidence exists to support it.
    Actual weather, climate , and geophysical records do not lie. Actually, the hottest period recorded since weather records have been kept is the 1930′s and the beginning of the 1940′s. The hottest year ever legitimately recorded was 1934. This actual records from reputable meteorologists and not trumped up computer models designed to show a desired outcome from radical environmentalists masquerading as climate scientists like the individuals at the UN. You are doing a great injustice to the American people by subscribing in these lies. You must be making some money in exchange for the promotion.
    Next, we have your desire to disarm law abiding citizens all based on your UN treaty signed a while back. The fact is you can proclaim by Executive Order that all American citizens be disarmed all you want. However, you will find most unwilling to let that happen.
    You should be aware that even any Executive Order you make that is unconstitutional will be null and void.
    You also need to come clean with the American people on the terrorism issue. Since taking office, you have chosen to support terrorist groups like Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood among many others. This has been seen in your Administration’s support of terrorist organizations in Libya, Egypt, N. Africa, and many areas of the world including Indonesia. Thus far, your support has been full scale ranging from supplying them with billions of dollars, arms, and even direct military intervention. By doing this you have proven that there is no concern of a terrorist threat in this country. A few years back in 2012, your State Department issued a statement declaring the War on Terrorism to be over. Yet, since then you have gladly renewed the Patriot Act, signed into law the NDAA, continue to permit the TSA to act like NAZI soldiers with all Americans who travel by air, and have the biggest spying operation in the history of the country monitoring Americans at home. It is the American people who are the targets of your so-called anti-terror operations. Thus, we have to believe you consider American Citizens the enemy and not international terrorist groups.
    The fact that you have an open border policy with the desire to legalize millions of illegal immigrants shows us your complete lack of concern for any terrorist threat.
    So, why all the tyrannical bills that essentially give you the power to become Absolute Ruler, if you are not concerned with terrorism? It can only be that you consider the American people to be the threat to what amounts to your desires of a Monarchy. Otherwise, you would not have signed these Totalitarian laws.
    The worst case scenario for you would be that there really is a threat of terrorism because this would concrete an already overwhelming slew of evidence proving you to be a treasonous traitor.
    You have managed to make Nixon look like the biggest Patriot this country has ever had as you gave a SOTU speech filled with unrealistic ideas, lies, and a Socialistic core that would make Vladimir Lenin proud.
    Disagree? Prove me wrong!
    Sincerely:
    Tony Elliott
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    Tony Elliott

    Tony R Elliott, Author, Editor, Book Aura Visions, American News Magazine, Social Paranormal Magazine and others. Radio Talk Show Co-Host on TJ MorrisETRadio on BlogtalkRadio.com/TJMorrisETradio Saturday Nights 8 Central. Syndicated Columnist for various ezines online. Political Commentator, Editorial Opinions, Member ACE Folklife Authors Club, ACO Press Club, TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club,

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  • Cyberspace Poster Boy For Change Edward Snowden – Human Progress Report by TJ

    HUMAN PROGRESS REPORT

    Interesting lawful Information Distinct from Right Truth

    Journalistic free information versus individuals selling information for gain

    Edward Snowden Poster Boy for Change in Cyberspace Data Gathering Content

    By Theresa J Thurmond Morris

    Edward Snowden Cyberspace Poster Boy for Change
    Edward Snowden
    Cyberspace Poster Boy
    for Change

    Terrified Business Writing for Hire about Could-Should-Would versus Experiencing-Knowing-Sharing

    When is it right for a human being to share what one knows to be their own experiences as in knowing and sharing their truth?

    I have contemplated this feeling of experiencing-knowing-sharing versus could-should-would inside my very own soul on many occasions when it comes to addressing the public as a freelance journalist, blogger, web writer. Imparticular in the world of which I am a part in the social paranormal community of cosmology and UFOlogy. We also refer to this as the Alien ET UFO Community.

    UFO Disclosure of past histories around the world relating to prior governments collecting data information of downed Flying Saucers, Spacecraft Not of Earth Origin, UFOS and USOS and capture of Aliens, Ets, and Alien Hybrid Sentient Intelligent Beings is all a part of the past, present and future.

    We are they whom come and go in our various levels of the evolutionary ladder of rebirth and reincarnation of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

    As one who has been asked to report on my own opinions and views of one young American 30 year old man born in North Carolina named Edward Snowden, it has been a subject I have only monitored as most people have based on the released information on the Internet in cyberspace.

    The topic of Edward Snowden sharing information as a “Whistle Blower” among many of my peers has been one of popular shares on the TJ Morris ET Radio show on Blog Talk Radio.

    Revealing the most helpful techniques for sharing opinions, thoughts, and views with regard to a social networking community online is what I am inspired to co-create with my friends.

    How we come to speak of topics is a serendipity type of behavior in synchronicity and yet the name Edward Snowden keeps cropping up as a major human being who is a part of the change in the communication exchange of information regarding the whole entire global critical mass mind.

    NSA and CIA are two of the acronyms in what is popular in what we call the “Alphabet Soup of the Intelligence Community” online.

    I prefer to remain under the spirituality and paranormal genres inside the internet at this time because of my interest in what in the past was not mainstream news. However, this is now changing as the information we exchange inside the cyberspace internet collection of data mining changes.

    We are co-creators with the entire working world and leisure world of entertainment inside the internet. We are growing inside the macrocosm of the global brain in cyberspace and we can no longer deny access to that which becomes exposed in various channels outside of the controlled mainstream news by huge corporations who controlled the NEWS MEDIA in the past.

    We are all capable of intelligence gathering due to the communication products which have joined us all together around the world.

    The fact that Edward Snowden has become the “POSTER BOY FOR CHANGE IN DATA INFORMATION SHARING” is now a known fact in the world.

    Whether we like the man or not does not matter since the information of what companies he has worked for in the past such as CIA and NSA has now taken us all including “MAIN STREAM MEDIA” by storm. We who are the outskirts press as freelancers and website owners and bloggers are all now a part of something much more than what was once only controlled by the rich and notorious. Some may even say that those in charge with their power and greed of past products and services is taken aback by our present day power of communication which has been handed over to the critical mass media now available in cyberspace by OPEN SOURCE information which is co-created for free by many who were trained in the technological age of computers. Technology is now a part of who we are, what we are, and what we are doing.

    I am including from a free source of information on the Internet an interview with the source listed for my friends to share with their friends on FACEBOOK and other FREE CHANNELS inside CYBERSPACE. This is the way information is now shared and sent to those who in the past more than likely did not care about the details of what makes the world go round in the journalistic world.

    Please share this information when and where you can. Thank you. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

     

    Edward Snowden former NSA of USA Employee a FULL TRANSCRIPT:

    Source: http://nextnewsnetwork.com/news/full-video-edward-snowden-on-german-tv-us-media-blackout/

    Interviewer: Mr. Snowden, did you sleep well the last couple of nights? Because, I was reading that you asked for a kind of police protection. Are there any threats?

     

    Snowden: There are significant threats but I sleep very well. There was an article that came out in an online outlet called BuzzFeed where they interviewed officials from the Pentagon, from the National Security Agency and they gave them anonymity to be able to say what they wanted, and what they told the reporter was that they wanted to murder me. These individuals, and these are acting government officials, they said they would be happy, they would love to put a bullet in my head, to poison me as I was returning from the grocery store, and have me die in the shower.

     

    Interviewer: But, fortunately, you are still alive with us.

     

    Snowden: Right, but I’m still alive, and I don’t lose sleep because I’ve done what I feel I needed to do. It was the right thing to do. And, I’m not going to be afraid.

     

    Interviewer: “The greatest fear I have,” and I quote you, “regarding these disclosures is nothing will change.” That was one of your greatest concerns at the time, but in the meantime there is a vivid discussion about the situation with the NSA. Not only in America but also in Germany and in Brazil, and President Obama was forced to go public and to justify what the NSA was doing on legal grounds.

     

    Snowden: What we saw initially in response to the revelations was sort of a circling of the wagons of government around the National Security Agency. Instead of circling around the public and protecting their rights, the political class circled around the security state and protected their rights. What’s interesting is, though that was the initially response, since then we’ve seen a softening. We’ve seen the President acknowledge that when he first said “we’ve drawn the right balance, there are no abuses,” we’ve seen him and his officials admit that there have been abuses. There have been thousands of violations of the National Security Agency and other agencies, authorities, every single year.

    The seal of the U.S. National Security Agency....
    The seal of the U.S. National Security Agency. The first use was in September 1966, replacing an older seal which was used briefly. For more information, see here and here. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

     

    Interviewer: Is the speech of Obama recently the beginning of a serious regulation?

     

    Snowden: It was clear from the President’s speech that he wanted to make minor changes to preserve authorities that we don’t need. The President created a review board from officials that were personal friends, from national security insiders, former Deputy of the CIA, people who had every incentive to be soft on these programs and to see them in the best possible light. But what they found was that these programs have no value, they’ve never stopped a terrorist attack in the United States, and they have marginal utility at best for other things. The only thing that the Section 215 phone meta-data program, actually it’s a broader meta-data program of bulk collection, bulk collection means mass surveillance, program was in stopping or detecting a $8,500 wire transfer from a cab driver in California. And, it’s this kind of review, where insiders go “we don’t need these programs; these programs don’t make us safe. They take a tremendous amount of resources to run, and they offer us no value.” They go “we can modify these.” The National Security agency operates under the President’s executive authority alone. He can end, or modify, or direct a change in their policies at any time.

     

    Interviewer: For the first time President Obama did concede that the NSA collects and stores trillions of data.

     

    Snowden: Every time you pick up the phone, dial a number, write an email, make a purchase, travel on the bus carrying a cell phone, swipe a card somewhere, you leave a trace. And, the government has decided that it’s a good idea to collect it all. Everything. Even if you’ve never been suspected of any crime. Traditionally the government would identify a suspect, they would go to a judge, and they would say we suspect he’s committed this crime, they would get a warrant and then they would be able to use the totality of their powers in pursuit of the investigation. Nowadays what we see is they want to apply the totality of their powers in advance, prior to an investigation.

     

    Interviewer: You started this debate. Edward Snowden is, in the meantime, a household name for the whistleblower in the age of the internet. You were working until last summer for the NSA, and during this time you collected, secretly, thousands of confidential documents. What was the decisive moment, or was there a long period of time, or something happening? Why did you do this?

     

    Snowden: I would say sort of the breaking point is seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress. There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that, for me, really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs. The public had a right to know that which the government is doing in its name, and that which the government is doing against the public, but neither of these things we were allowed to discuss, we were allowed no, even the wider body of our elected representatives were prohibited from knowing or discussing these programs, and that’s a dangerous thing. The only review we had was from a secret court, the FISA Court, which is a sort of rubber stamp authority.

     

    When you are on the inside and you go into work every day and you sit down at the desk and you realize the power you have, you can wiretap the President of the United States, you can wiretap a Federal Judge, and, if you do it carefully no one will ever know because the only way the NSA discovers abuses are from self-reporting.

     

    Interviewer: We’re not talking only of the NSA as far as this is concerned. There is a multilateral agreement for cooperation among the services and this alliance of intelligence operations is known as The Five Eyes. What agencies and countries belong to this alliance, and what is its purpose?

     

    Snowden: The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post-World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of cooperate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure.

     

    So we have the UK’s GCHQ, we have the US NSA, we have Canada’s C-Sec, we have the Australian Signals Intelligence Directorate and we have New Zealand’s DSD. What the result of this was, over decades and decades, what sort of a supra-national intelligence organization that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries.

     

    Interviewer: In many countries, as in America too, the agencies like the NSA are not allowed to spy within their own borders on their own people. So, the Brits for example, they can spy on everybody but the Brits. But, the NSA can conduct surveillance in England. So, in the very end they could exchange their data and it would be, they would be, strictly following the law.

     

    Snowden: If you ask the governments about this directly they would deny it and point to policy agreements between the members of the Five Eyes saying that they won’t spy on each other’s citizens. But, there are a couple of key points there. One is that the way they define spying is not the collection of data. The GCHQ is collecting an incredible amount of data on British citizens, just as the National Security Agency is gathering an enormous amount of data on US citizens. What they are saying is that they will not then target people within that data. They won’t look for UK citizens or British citizens. In addition, the policy agreements between them that say British won’t target US citizens, US won’t target British citizens, are not legally binding. The actual memorandums of agreement state specifically on that that they are not intended to put a legal restriction on any government. Their policy agreements that can be deviated from or broken at any time. So if they want to spy on a British citizen, they can spy on a British citizen, and then they can even share that data with the British government that is itself forbidden from spying on UK citizens. So there is a sort of a trading dynamic there, but it’s not, it’s not open, it’s more of a nudge and wink. And, beyond that, the key is to remember the surveillance and the abuse doesn’t occur when people look at the data, it occurs when people gather the data in the first place.

     

    Interviewer: How narrow is the cooperation of the German Secret Service BND with the NSA and the Five Eyes?

     

    Snowden: I would describe it as intimate. As a matter of fact, the first way I described it in our written interview, was that the German Services and the US Services are in bed together. They not only share information, the reporting of results from intelligence, but they actually share the tools and the infrastructure. They work together against joint targets in services. And, there’s a lot of danger in this. One of the major programs that face abuse in the National Security Agency is what’s called “XKeyscore.” It’s a front end search engine that allows them to look through all of the records they collect worldwide every day.

     

    Interviewer: What could you do if you would sit so to speak in their place with this kind of instrument?

     

    Snowden: You could read anyone’s email in the world. Anybody you got an email address for, any website you can watch traffic to and from it, any computer that an individual sits at, you can watch it, any laptop that you’re tracking, you can follow it as it moves from place to place throughout the world. It’s a one stop shop for access to the NSA’s information. And what’s more, you can tag individuals using “XKeyscore.” Where, let’s say I saw you once and I thought what you were doing was interesting, or you just have access that’s interesting to me. Let’s say you work at a major German corporation, and I want access to that network. I can track your username on a website, on a form somewhere, I can track your real name, I can track associations with your friends, and I can build what’s called a fingerprint, which is network activity unique to you, which means anywhere you go in the world, anywhere you try to sort of hide your online presence, hide your identity, the NSA can find you. And, anyone who’s allowed to use this, or who the NSA shares their software with, can do the same thing. Germany is one of the countries that have access to “XKeyscore.”

     

    Interviewer: This sounds rather frightening. The question is, does the BND deliver data of Germans to the NSA?

     

    Snowden: Whether the BND does it directly, or knowingly, the NSA gets German data. Whether it’s provided, I can’t speak to until it’s been reported, because it would be classified. And, I prefer that journalists make the distinctions, and the decisions, about what is public interest and what should be published. However, it’s no secret that every country in the world has the data of their citizens in the NSA. Millions and millions and millions of data connections, from Germans going about their daily lives, talking on their cell phones, sending SMS messages, visiting websites, buying things online, all of this ends up at the NSA. And, it’s reasonable to suspect that the BND may be aware of it in some capacity. Now, whether or not they actively provide the information, I should not say.

     

    Interviewer: The BND basically argues if we do this, we do this accidentally actually, and our filter didn’t work.

     

    Snowden: Right. So, the kind of things that they’re discussing there are two things. They’re talking about filtering of ingest, which means when the NSA puts a secret server in a German telecommunications provider, or they hack a German router and they divert the traffic in a manner that lets them search through things, they’re saying “if I see what I think is a German talking to another German I’ll drop it.” But, how do you know? You could say “well, these people are speaking the German language, this IP address seems to be from a German company to another German company,” but that’s not accurate, and they wouldn’t dump all of that traffic because they’ll get people who are targets of interest, who are actively in Germany using German communications. So, realistically, what’s happening is when they say “there’s no spying on Germans,” they don’t mean that German data isn’t being gathered, they don’t mean that records aren’t being taken or stolen. What they mean is that they’re not intentionally searching for German citizens. And, that’s sort of a fingers crossed behind the back promise, it’s not reliable.

     

    Interviewer: What about other European countries, like Norway and Sweden for example, because we have a lot of, I think, underwater cables going through the Baltic Sea.

     

    Snowden: So, this is sort of an expansion of the same idea. If the NSA isn’t collecting information on German citizens in Germany, are they as soon as it leaves German borders? And, the answer is “yes.” Any single communication that transits the internet, the NSA may intercept at multiple points. They might see it in Germany, they might see it in Sweden, they might see it in Norway or Finland, they might see it in Britain, and they might see it in the United States. Any single one of these places that a German communication crosses; it’ll be ingested and added to the database.

     

    Interviewer: So, let’s come to our southern European neighbors then. What about Italy? What about France? What about Spain?

     

    Snowden: It’s the same deal worldwide.

     

    Interviewer: Does the NSA spy on Siemens? On Mercedes? On other successful German companies, for example, to prevail, to have the advantage of knowing what is going on in a scientific and economic world?

     

    Snowden: I don’t want to preempt the editorial decisions of journalists.

     

    Interviewer: Ok.

     

    Snowden: But, what I will say is there’s no question that the US is engaged in economic spying. If there’s information at Siemens that they think would be beneficial to the national interests, not the national security of the United States, they’ll go after that information, and they’ll take it.

     

    Interviewer: There is this old saying “you do whatever you can do.” So, the NSA is doing whatever is technically possible.

     

    Snowden: This is something that the President touched on last year, where he said that just because we can do something, and this was in relation to tapping Angela Merkel’s phone. Just because we can do something, doesn’t mean that we should. And, that’s exactly what’s happened. The technological capabilities that have been provided, because of sort of weak security standards in internet protocols and cellular communications networks, have meant that intelligence services can create systems that see everything.

     

    Interviewer: Nothing annoyed the German government more than the fact that the NSA taped the private phone of the German Chancellor Merkel over the last 10 years, obviously. Suddenly this invisible surveillance was connected with a known face and was not connected with a kind of watery, shady terrorist background. Obama now promised to stop snooping on Merkel, which raises the question “did the NSA tape already previous governments, including the previous chancellors, and when did they do that? And, how long did they do this for?”

     

    Snowden: This is a particularly difficult question for me to answer, because there’s information that I very strongly believe is in the public interest. However, as I’ve said before, I prefer for journalists to make those decisions in advance, review the material themselves, and decide whether or not the public value of this information outweighs the sort of reputational cost to the officials that ordered the surveillance. What I can say is we know Angela Merkel was monitored by the National Security Agency. The question is how reasonable is it to assume that she is the only German official that was monitored? How reasonable is it to believe that she’s the only prominent German face who the National Security Agency was watching? I would suggest it seems unreasonable that if anyone was concerned about the intentions of German leadership, that they would only watch Merkel and not her aides, not other prominent officials, not heads of ministries, or even local government officials.

     

    Interviewer: How does a young man from Elizabeth City in North Carolina, 30 years old, get in such a position in such a sensitive area?

     

    Snowden: That’s a very difficult question to answer. In general, I would say it highlights the dangers of privatizing government functions. I worked previously as an actual staff officer, a government employee for the Central Intelligence Agency, but I’ve also served much more frequently as a contractor in a private capacity. What that means is, you have private for-profit companies doing inherently governmental work, like targeted espionage, surveillance, compromising foreign systems. And, anyone who has the skills, who can convince a private company that they have the qualifications to do so, will be empowered by the government to do that, and there’s very little oversight. There’s very little review.

     

    Interviewer: Have you been one of these classical computer kids sitting red eyed during the nights in the age of 12, 15, and your father was knocking on your door and saying “switch off the light, it’s too late now?” Did you get your computer skills from that side? Or, when did you get your first computer?

     

    Snowden: (laughter) Right, right. I definitely have had a, shall we say, a deep informal education in computers and electronic technology. They’ve always been fascinating and interesting to me. (laughter) The characterization of having your parents telling you to go to bed, I would say is fair.

     

    Interviewer: If one looks to the little public data of your life, one discovers that you, obviously, wanted to join in May 2004, the Special Forces to fight in Iraq. What did motivate you at the time? You know, Special Forces, looking at you in the very moment, means grim fighting, and it means probably killing. And, did you ever get to Iraq?

     

    Snowden: No, I didn’t get to Iraq. One of the interesting things about the Special Forces are that they’re not actually intended for direct combat. They’re what’s referred to as “a force multiplier.” They’re inserted behind enemy lines. It’s a squad that has a number of different specialties in it, and they teach and enable the local population to resist, or to support, US forces in a way that allows the local population a chance to help determine their own destiny. And, I felt that was an inherently noble thing at the time. In hindsight, some of the reasons that we went into Iraq were not well founded. And, I think did a disservice to everyone involved.

     

    Interviewer: What happened to your adventure then? Did you stay long with them? Or, what happened to you?

     

    Snowden: No, I broke my legs when I was in training and was discharged.

     

    Interviewer: So it was a short adventure in other words?

     

    Snowden: It was a short adventure.

     

    Interviewer: In 2007 the CIA stationed you with a diplomatic cover in Geneva, in Switzerland. Why did you join the CIA by the way?

     

    Snowden: I don’t think I can actually answer that one.

     

    Interviewer: OK, if it’s what you have been doing there, forget it. But why did you join the CIA?

     

    Snowden: In many ways I think it’s a continuation of trying to do everything I could to prosecute the public good in the most effective way. And, it’s in line with the rest of my government service where I tried to use my technical skills in the most difficult positions I could find in the world, and the CIA offered that.

     

    Interviewer: If we go back, Special Forces, CIA, NSA, it’s not actually in the description of a human rights activist, or somebody who becomes a whistleblower after this. What happens to you?

     

    Snowden: I think it tells a story, and that’s, no matter how deeply an individual is embedded in the government, no matter how faithful to the government they are, no matter how strongly they believe in the causes of their government, as I did during the Iraq war, people can learn, people can discover the line between appropriate government behavior and actual wrongdoing. And, I think it became clear to me that that line had been crossed.

     

    Interviewer: You worked for the NSA through a private contractor with the name Booze Allen Hamilton, one of the big ones in the business. What is the advantage for the US Government, or the CIA, to work through a private contractor, to outsource a central government function?

     

    Snowden: The contracting culture of the national security community in the United States is a complex topic. It’s driven by a number of interests between primarily limiting the number of direct government employees at the same time as keeping lobbying groups in Congress, typically from very well-funded businesses such as Booze Allen Hamilton. The problem there is you end up in a situation where government policies are being influenced by private corporations who have interests that are completely divorced from the public good in mind. The result of that is what we saw at Booze Allen Hamilton, where you have private individuals who have access to, what the government alleges were millions and millions of records that they could walk out the door with at any time with no accountability, no oversight, no auditing, the government didn’t even know they were gone.

     

    Interviewer: At the very end you ended up in Russia. Many of the intelligence communities’ suspect you made a deal, classified material for Asylum here in Russia.

     

    Snowden: The Chief of the Task Force investigating me, as recently as December, said that their investigation had turned up no evidence, or indications at all, that I had any outside help, or contact, or had made a deal of any kind to accomplish my mission. I worked alone. I didn’t need anybody’s help. I don’t have any ties to foreign governments. I’m not a spy for Russia, or China, or any other country for that matter. If I am a traitor, who did I betray? I gave all of my information to the American public, to American journalists, who are reporting on American issues. If they see that as treason, I think people really need to consider who do they think they’re working for. The public is supposed to be their boss, not their enemy. Beyond that, as far as my personal safety, I’ll never be fully safe until these systems have changed.

     

    Interviewer: After your revelations, none of the European countries really offered you asylum. Where did you apply in Europe for asylum?

     

    Snowden: I can’t remember the list of countries with any specificity because there were many of them. But, France, Germany were definitely in there, as was the UK. A number of European countries, all of whom, unfortunately, felt that doing the right thing was less important than supporting US political concerns.

     

    Interviewer: One reaction to the NSA snooping is in the very moment that countries like Germany are thinking to create national internets, an attempt to force internet companies to keep their data in their own country. Does this work?

     

    Snowden: It’s not gonna stop the NSA. Let’s put it that way. The NSA goes where the data is. If the NSA can pull text messages out of telecommunication networks in China, they can probably manage to get Facebook messages out of Germany. Ultimately, the solution to that is not to try to stick everything in a walled garden, although that does raise the level of sophistication and complexity of taking the information. It’s also much better simply to secure the information internationally against everyone, rather than playing ‘let’s move the data.’ Moving the data isn’t fixing the problem. Securing the data is the problem.

     

    Interviewer: President Obama, in the very moment, obviously doesn’t care too much about the message of the leak. And, together with the NSA, they do care very much more about catching the messenger in that context. Obama asked the Russian president several times to extradite you. But Putin did not. It looks that you will stay to the rest of your life, probably in Russia. How do you feel about Russia in that context, and is there a solution to this problem.

     

    Snowden: I think it’s becoming increasingly clear that these leaks didn’t cause harm, in fact, they served the public good. Because of that, I think it will be very difficult to maintain sort of an ongoing campaign of persecution against someone who the public agrees serve the public interest.

     

    Interviewer: The New York Times wrote a very long comment, and demanded clemency for you. The headline “Edward Snowden Whistleblower,” and I quote from that, “the public learned in great detail how the agency has extended its mandate and abused its authority.” And, the New York Times closes, “President Obama should tell his aides to begin finding a way to end Mr. Snowden’s vilification, and give him an incentive to return home.” Did you get a call in between from the White House?

     

    Snowden: I’ve never received a call from the White House, and I am not waiting by the phone. But, I would welcome the opportunity to talk about how we can bring this to a conclusion that serves the interest of all parties. I think it’s clear there are times where what is lawful is distinct from what is rightful. There are times throughout history and it doesn’t take long for, either an American, or a German, to think about times in the history of their country where the law provided the government to do things which were not right.

     

    Interviewer: President Obama, obviously, is in the very moment not quite convinced of that, because he said to you are charged with three felonies. And, I quote, “if you, Edward Snowden, believe in what you did, you should go back to America, appear before the court with a lawyer and make your case.” Is this the solution?

     

    Snowden: It’s interesting because he mentions three felonies. What he doesn’t say is that the crimes that he’s charged me with are crimes that don’t allow me to make my case. They don’t allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. The Espionage Act was never intended, it’s from 1918, it was never intended to prosecute journalistic sources, people who are informing the newspapers about information that’s of public interest. It was intended for people who are selling documents in secret to foreign governments, who are bombing bridges, who are sabotaging communications, not people who are serving the public good. So, it’s, I would say, illustrative that the president would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial.

    TJ Morris ET Radio –Off World Beings Monitoring HUMAN PROGRESS

    TJ Morris ET Radio is owned by TJ Morris ACO LLC – Broadcast Media – ACO PRESS CORPS- Communication Online Skills as an Associates Cooperative Organization. ACO LLC is managed by managers around the North American Continent including USA, Canada, and Mexico with associates in India. Focused on the communication of truth among truthseekers and spirituality among Lightworkers their members are interested in the metaphysical and esoteric which includes the serendipity synchronicities of the supernatural. Sharing spiritual seers guidance with those of the Ascension Avatar Masters who share past life reincarnation, astral travel, out-of-body, near death experiences, ancient mystery schools, and new thought teachings… Today is the first day of the rest of our lives on planet earth. We are a hubris race of sentient intelligent beings with an overall ego which wants us to share that we are the supreme intelligent creation of this universal order. Most of our world relations want us to share our world religions which have been a part of our cultures and traditions around the world. We share what we call cyberspace internet and World Wide Web of information with those who care to share communication of our art, culture, education, entertainment, fellowship, folklife, gaming, history, science, spirituality, technology, and an eclectic point of view of how we all fit into the larger macrocosm picture. Many of us are web writers and share our own communication as what is now called bloggers as web loggers. This is now a part of our new culture on the internet. We are co-creators of the community online practicing skills which we shall teach our children in our schools around the world and in cyberspace. The world has changed and we are changing with it. Join us weekly to find out how you can become a part of our authors and speakers –ACO Culture Club with TJ Morris.     

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    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • Ireland

    Major political divisions of Ireland similar t...
    Major political divisions of Ireland similar to those in Muircheartach’s time (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    IRELAND

    Ireland had what could be called a sophisticated primitive society.

    This is a society that is otherwise quite advanced culturally and technologically, but lacks several key features that are normally associated with a non-primitive society. For the Irish, these features were a written language, urban centers (e.g., cities and towns), and money (e.g., currency). This essay describes what is currently known about ancient Irish society. Where necessary, singular and plural forms of Irish words are indicated by the following code: singular form / plural form. Please see the Pronunciation Guide for a key on how to pronounce the various word sounds.

    The ancient Irish social structure was stratified, though not as heavily stratified as other sophisticated primitives. Its hierarchy was established by three separate, yet superimposed, organizations.

    BLOOD KINSHIP, PROFESSIONAL, CLASS ORGANIZATIONS IN IRELAND

    One was based on blood and kinship, another on profession, and the last on class.

    A Celtic husband and wife.First and foremost in Irish society was the familial organization. The basis of this organization was the immediate family (fine / finí). An Irish family was not like a modern family, with just parents and children. It included everyone who lived under the same roof, which not only meant grandparents and grandchildren, but often unmarried aunts and uncles, and at times even nephews and nieces. Next up was the extended family (sept / septeanna), which included married aunts and uncles, and often closely related cousins. After that came the clan (clann / clanna), which included all the families that claimed lineage from a single ancestor. Several related clans then formed a tribe (tuath / tuatha), which was generally recognized as the smallest political unit. Several interrelated tribes formed a kingdom (dál / dála), while a number of individual kingdoms formed a province (coiced / coicedí). There were five provinces in ancient Ireland — Ulster (Ulaidh), Connaught (Connacht), Leinester (Laigin), Munster (Mamu), and Meath (Mide) — and while in later centuries Ulster and Meath got split up and recombined by various tribes, the other three remained intact until the disastrous failure of O’Neill’s rebellion to force out the English.

    A warrior on his chariot.

    Superimposed on the familial organization was the professional organization, which was fairly simple.

    People were divided into three groups: the warriors (láech / láecheanna), the craftsmen (cerd / cerdí), and the laborer farmers (aithech / aithecheanna).

    The warriors were the elite.

    They ran the society at large, but they also protected it. As well, their status as heroes meant that, rather than resent them, the laborer farmers honored them, even revered them.

    Even so, the laborer farmers were the backbone of the society. They tended the land, raised the food, and herded the cattle. Without them, the warriors would starve, so rather than ride roughshod over the commoners as in other societies, the warriors treated the laborer farmers with respect.

     Meanwhile, the craftsmen (and women) composed the middle rank.

    They too depended upon the warriors for protection, but they also depended upon the laborer farmers for food.

    However, the other two classes depended upon the goods that the craftsmen created.

    They made the weapons, armor, and chariots the warriors used; they made the farm implements the laborers used; and they made the everyday items everyone needed, and the objets d’art everyone appreciated.

    They also included priests, musicians, poets, scholars, law keepers, physicians; anyone needed to make a civilization viable.

    Celtic queen

    The class organization was more complex, and sometimes crossed professional boundaries. There were six classes: the rulers, the aristocrats, the freemen, the laborers, the serfs, and the dependents. Each level had its own rights and privileges, and was in turn subdivided into additional levels and/or positions. However, unlike many other societies, this was not a caste system. No one was rigidly fixed into the profession, class, and position into which he or she was born. In fact, it was possible for anyone at any level, even the lowest, to advance to a higher level through hard work and diligence.

    The ruling class was composed of the chiefs and kings, who led each level of society. At the bottom was the clan chieftain (rí clainne). For the most part, clans tended to be rather small, so more often than not, the clan chieftain was also the village chieftain, but some clans were large enough to encompass a number of villages, in which case the subordinate village leaders were simply known as chiefs (rí / ríthe). Next up was the tribal chieftain (rí tuaithe), and above him was the leader of the local kingdom (rí dáil). Finally, the provincial leader (rí coicede) was high king (ard rí) over all within the province. Theoretically, the provincial kings were subordinate to the High King of Ireland (rí ruírech), but the high kingship was largely a ceremonial position, and the High King had authority only over the territory immediately around Tara. As such, the provincial kings were pretty much free to act as they saw fit. The only time the High King could rule undisputed was during a national calamity, and even then the provincial kings often were not fully cooperative. The first, and only, High King to truly rule undisputed was Brian Boru, and his power died with him at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014 C.E.

    The aristocrat class was privileged (nemhedh), which meant they could hold the land and control its usage and distribution. In Iron Age Ireland, land was not privately owned, but owned by the tribe as a whole. However, the aristocrats held the land in trust for the general tribal membership (céile). The tribe as a whole determined the division of arable tribal land between that held by the chief or king to support his rule, that held by the nobles and their tenants, and that shared by all the free commoners. The rest was non-arable wasteland, which was treated by the tribe as common land unclaimed by any class and could be used by all people for grazing, hunting and gathering food, collecting firewood, etc. Nonetheless, the leaders and aristocrats received the bulk of the arable land, and they were free to determine how to use it and who could work it.

    A warrior aristocrat.

    There were two types of aristocrats: the warrior nobility (uasal) and the professionals (flaith). All warriors, no matter how humble, were noblemen (airech / airecheanna), and needed land to support them so they could devote themselves to fighting. The highest rank a warrior could hold, however, was not the equivalent of a modern military or titled rank, but that of champion (fénnid / fénneada). This makes sense, though, considering the heroic nature of Irish Iron Age Celtic society. The professionals also needed land, to support themselves as they devoted their efforts to their professions. These included physicians (fáithliag / fáithliaig), historian poets (fili / filidh), law-keepers (breitheamh / breitheamha), and the priests (druih / druihe).

    The freemen (aire / airí) were not privileged (doernemhedh), so they could not hold land themselves, but they could rent it from a nobleman, or they could be granted it by the tribe as a whole. They could, however, own personal property, including cattle. Most freemen were farmers (bóaire / bóair), but among their ranks were also certain skilled tradesmen. These were people who performed tasks that were highly prized by the aristocracy; these included the musician poet (bard / baird), blacksmith (gobae / gobaí), and charioteer (arae / araí). This last might seem odd, but charioteers did not engage in battle themselves, except under the most dire circumstances.

    However, this was a way a freeman could be advanced to the aristocratic level, if he distinguished himself in combat.

    The laborers (féine / féiní), on the other hand, as well as being non-privileged, were not allowed to own personal property. Nor were they able to rent land from the aristocrats. Instead, they either lived on whatever land the general tribal membership assigned them to, or squatted on unclaimed tribal land. As with the freemen, most were farmers (bothach / bothaigh), but many worked at some sort of craft. These people were usually employed by the aristocrats, but were not held in as high regard as the free tradesmen. Some of these crafts included wright or carpenter (saer / saereanna), bodyguard (amuis / amosa), hospitaler (briugu / briugunna), watchman (dercia / derciana), chef (rannaire / rannairí), steward (rechteaire / rechteairí), and messenger (techt / techte).

    Members of a Celtic community.Yet despite their social handicaps, the freemen and the laborers were all free commoners and members of the tribe. This gave them a say in tribal affairs and full voting rights, including the election of the leader and the division of tribal land. In fact, they formed the bulk of the tribal membership, and so were the ultimate foundation of law and authority in Irish society.

    The serfs (sencleith / sencleithí) worked the land for the nobles and some of the free commoners who were granted land. They were tied to the land, unable to leave it without permission, but they were not slaves. They were in fact still considered to be members of the tribe, and while they had no voting rights, they still had a right to occupy tribal land and to prosper from their own labor.

    The dependents (fuidir / fuidirí), however, had no such rights, and were generally considered to be bonded, little better than slaves in most cases. There were two types of dependents. Outsiders (saer-fuidir / saer-fuidirí) were law-abiding strangers who, for whatever reason, were without a tribe. They were granted the right to squat on unclaimed tribal land by the chieftain or king, contingent on their continued good behavior, but they had no voice in tribal matters and were dependent upon the tribe’s goodwill. The other type (daer-fuidir / daer-fuidirí), however, consisted of captives, criminals, and slaves, all of whom had no rights whatsoever. Even so, Irish law favored emancipation, and it was possible for anyone in this class to be freed and/or adopted by the tribe, as a reward for extraordinary service. Male slaves (mug / muig) were often called bondmen; female slaves (cumhal / cumhala) were often called bondmaids or bondwomen, and were used as a unit of currency to describe the worth of other valuable items.

    A Celtic woman

    One other aspect of heroic Irish society that should be discussed is the rights of women.

    There is some confusion over this issue, with one group of people maintaining that the women were no better than chattel, and another arguing just as strongly that the women were equal, even superior, to men.

    What needs to be kept in mind is that the former derive their opinion from Medieval sources, whereas the latter derive theirs from the ancient sagas.

     However, both groups of sources are to some extent exaggerated; the truth most likely lies somewhere in between.

    Using these sources as guides, and adding other sources such as the Brehon Laws, the picture that one gets is that, while ancient Irish society was strongly paternalistic, women enjoyed many rights and could yield considerable power, given the right mix of talent, ambition, and opportunity.

    For example, in Medieval societies in general, it was the father’s right to choose who his daughter would marry. In ancient Ireland, though, the woman was free to marry whomever she chose, regardless of her father’s wishes.

    In addition, she was free to divorce her husband whenever she wanted.

     Whereas in Medieval Europe, women were restricted to being wives, nuns, or whores, in ancient Ireland no trade or craft was barred to them, not even the privileged professions.

    We know for a fact that they could hold any position in any class, even that of tribal, kingdom, or provincial leader.

    And in matters of property, whereas Medieval husbands were free to do whatever they wished with their wives’ property, in ancient Ireland neither husband nor wife could sell, barter, or make contract for the property of the other without permission. Moreover, if a couple divorced, they divided up the property by the same ratio as they each held when they married. For example, if the wife owned twice as many cows as her husband when they married, she retained twice as many cows as he when they divorced, even if their collective herd had grown considerably.

     

    One particularly controversial issue is whether women fought as warriors in battles. Many scholars maintain that there is no credible evidence for Celtic women warriors, and that even historical figures such as Boudicca may have led battles, but they didn’t fight in them. Yet we also have the testimony of contemporary Greek and Roman commentators of women fighting alongside men, and a law was passed in 697 C.E. that forbade women from fighting. So the issue is far from settled. For various reasons, Kevin L. O’Brien has chosen to accept the idea that Celtic women could be warriors just as the men, but he does not claim that this is an historical certainty.

     

    Still another aspect of ancient Irish society worth discussing is community structure. Before the coming of the Vikings, there were no true towns or even villages in Ireland. Instead, the people lived in what were more like homesteads and ranches in the Old West. They all shared the same basic design and are known as ring-forts. They consisted of a roughly circular area enclosed by a defensive ditch. Inside the inner perimeter, the dirt excavated to create the ditch was piled up to form a rampart (see the model below right); revetments were usually built into the inner face to protect it, and sometimes wooden palisades were erected along the top as an added barrier. At least one entrance was cut through the rampart, defended by a double-gate system, with smaller ramparts built up on either side of the path.

    A typical ring fort.

    Larger ring-forts had more elaborate defenses, including multiple concentric rings of rampart and ditch constructions, labyrinthine gate complexes, and, where possible for the largest structures, rock walls. Some were also defended by an outer barrier called a chevaux de frise. This consisted of a field of broken boulders, with their sharp points and edges facing outward. These served the same function as tank traps: they prevented chariots from getting too close, and they broke up massed infantry charges. Many forts were built on top of hills and raised mounds, taking advantage of their natural defenses; these are called hill forts. Some of the largest ring-forts were actually composite structures, with a number of closely-spaced smaller forts contained within a single large fort; these were the seats of the provincial kings and of the high king at Tara.

    Hillfort.

    There were three types of ring-forts. The small, simple ones (ráth / ráthanna) housed immediate families and sometimes even small extended families. The somewhat larger and more heavily fortified ones (caisel / caisil) housed extended families and smaller clans. The largest, most heavily fortified type (dún / dúnta) were the strongholds of the leaders. Some were large enough to house whole clans, and a few were much like towns, in that they tended to house the professionals, the tradesmen, and the craftsmen.

    Inside the defensive perimeter, there was at least one round house, usually with a number of smaller out-buildings.

    A round house consisted of a circular wall made out of wattle covered in mud daub; in rare cases, heavy unmortared stone could be substituted.

    There was a main entranced flanked by two smaller, secondary entrances, and usually there was a rear entrance as well. The roof was cone-shaped and covered in thatch, but with no hole for smoke from the central fire to escape. Instead, the smoke would accumulate inside the roof space and seep out through the thatch.

    This oxygen-poor environment was perfect for preserving and storing food, especially meat. A round house could be of any size, and the larger ones had an inner ring of posts to help support the roof rafters, but even small houses had considerable floor space.

    IRISH BREHON LAW OLDEST BEFORE KNOWN JEWISH & CHRISTIAN

    We are fortunate that a large body of ancient Law tracts has managed to survive the ravages of time. These tracts are the most important source of knowledge about the pre-Norman Irish. The information that can be gleaned here can be supplemented by information from other texts and manuscripts, thereby giving us at least a glimpse of the practical side of the Irish, void of the modern neo-pagan mysticism that tends to fabricate a myth of its own.

            You might well ask, “If the Brehon Law was so great, why did the founders of the Republic acclaim their rich legal legacy instead of retaining the English common law? There are a number of reasons. The primary reason was that the English government had waged a very successful centuries long campaign to eradicate the Brehon Law from the Irish consciousness.

    Secondly, at the time of the founding of the Republic, the archaic tribal nature of the Law, the scarcity of manuscripts and the difficulty in translation provided a truly formidable task.

    Even today, detailed knowledge of the Brehon Law is generally little known to the Irish people.

    Sure, many books on the subject have been written. But such books were written by scholars for other scholars and not for the common citizen.

    It is indeed a shame for the old Laws are much more than recordings of ancient legal system.

    They are a sometimes-detailed look into the minds and hearts of a once rich and still proud culture.

    Hopefully, the work of individual scholars and organizations such as “The Irish Legal History Society” and “The Irish Texts Society” can continue to encourage and advance the knowledge of Irish Law and thereby help us understand more fully a culture unique in European history.

    The majority of law-texts date only from the early 1120′s CE.

    By this I mean that the date of a manuscript is the date of its writing. However, the text can be and often is of a much earlier period. This is determined on the basis of linguistic and historical considerations. Such text dating can sometimes identify a very narrow range of a few years, while other texts can only be dated to within a century or two.

    Such analysis by linguistic and legal scholars have thus constructed a picture of a continuous legal system in Ireland from the Old Irish period (c.600-900), through the Middle Irish period (c.900-1200) into what is called the classical Modern Irish period (c.1200-1650).

    The end of the tradition came with the Cromwellian scourge of Ireland in the 17th century.

           The four texts considered the most important of the early period are Bretha Nemed Toisech, written in the 8th century, the Senchus Mór, written in the beginning of the eighth century, the Cáin Fuitherbe written in 683 and the Collectio Canonum Hibernensis written in the early 8th century.

    The first three are written in Gaelic while the latter is written in Latin and thus renders it suspect to considerations of non-native tradition.

    These are the manuscripts upon which most of today’s theories about ancient Brehon Law are based.

    However, the foundation here is shaky for three primary reasons. First of all, the four listed texts are all products of monasteries and obviously reflect the Christian approach to the ancient Law and we will refer to them as Monastery Law in this study.

    Secondly, they all originated in a relatively localized area, the province of Munster.

    Therefor they provide a very narrow view of a most complex subject. Finally, we must consider the “creative” talents of the recording Christian clerics who were soldiers in the struggle for the souls of the embattled Irish.

    In their battles for the hearts, souls and wealth of Ireland, the Monk-scholars labored diligently to ‘Christianize’ Irish culture, including its history.

    The Annals of the Four Masters is an excellent example.

    Jewish chronology places the ‘beginning’, (the Creation) at 3,761BCE.

    The Christians follow suit with dates varying from then to 4,004 BCE.

    Irish history indicated a Calendar that began in 4,014 BCE.

    The real problem though was that the Firbolgs were recorded as coming to Ireland before the Biblical date of the flood.

    To correct such obvious short-comings, the clerical historians of the Annals threw out existing computations and started over settling on a 5,200 BCE date for creation with the flood occurring 2,242 years later.

    There were other monasterial creations, but the point is; much of the historical work found in the products of monasteries is strongly laced with fiction.

    Therefore, we must approach these documents with a healthy dose of critical objectivity.

            Brehon Law fell into two categories; Cain and Urradas.

    Cain Law was that which applied to all of Ireland. Urradas was local Law. In the event of conflict between the two, Urradas (or local Law) took precedent.

    Thus each locality and/or Clan might well have its own set of Law.

    Since the Monasteries functioned as independent “clans,” under Brehon Law, their laws were modified to suit the individual Bishop-in-charge.

    Another point should be brought out. Any system of Law must be dynamic and adapt to the needs of its changing society. Early on, monasteries were small, with minute populations.

    They existed only at the discretion of the local Clan ruler. Thus, their law would mirror that of the ‘host’ clan by necessity. In time, as the monasteries, their wealth and populations grew, their increasing independence was reflected in the law.

    By the 8th century, Canon Law began to infiltrate the texts. A good example of this is reflected in early versions of monastery recorded law. Contention between monastery and clan (or Bishop and King) was settled by the King. Later, contention became a joint responsibility.

    Finally, when political and economic strength of the monastery was sufficient, contention became the sole responsibility of the Bishop.

    n the case of the Senchus Mor, often referred to as the Patrick’s Law, the opening section relates that it was written under Patrick’s supervision with 8 others in conference.

    Of these, two were Bishop’s, three were Kings, one a Poet and one a bona fide Brehon.

    Based on Patrick’s supposed involvement, the date for the compilation is given in many references as around 461 CE, as early as 438 in others.

    However, on the basis of linguistic analysis, the true date for the writing of the text is the early 8th century and its place of writing in the northern midlands.

    Apparently, the real author(s) were trying to apply legitimacy to their work by crediting it to the long dead Patrick.

    The original law texts written prior to the 8th century are long lost. Successive copies have been made down through time with commentaries and explanations appended or glossed in the margins. As an old fading copy was reproduced, glosses and appended commentaries sometimes worked their way into the body of the text.

    The result is that the manuscripts now existing are somewhat flawed.

    However, much of the additions can be identified as such through linguistic analysis.

    The law tracts were written in the oldest known dialect of the Gaelic language, called Bérla Féini.

    Even as early as the Old Irish period (600-900 CE) the Brehons had to be especially trained in it. So archaic did this dialect become that scholars from the Middle Irish period onward had great difficulty in translation and understanding, as their commentaries and glosses reflect.

    Additionally, the style of the Bérla Féini is peculiarly cryptic and abrupt.

    Incomplete sentences abound and catchwords holding specific meaning were sometimes not written down in full, but held in memory by the experts. Thus, it is relatively easy to separate the original text from later additions, thereby enabling fairly accurate dating. Translation is a different matter.

    The collective body of Brehon Law is considerable and all-inclusive of civil, military and criminal law.

    It regulated social action from the ruler down to the slave and established their rights and privileges.

    In civil law there were detailed rules for such things as property management, the industries which included building, mills, water courses, brewing, fishing weirs and even bees and honey. There were also laws governing the relationships between landlord and tenant, professional fees, the duties of father and son, duties of foster-parents and foster-children, etc. There were also laws for distress or seizure of goods, for trespass and evidence, etc. In the area of criminal law, offences and their penalties were minutely detailed, Killing (both human and non-human) wounding, theft and all nature of willful damage, accidental injury were listed along with exact compensation required.

     Some of the unique features of early Brehon Law, compared to our modern law, included recognition of personal responsibility scaled to ones position in society, the priority of individuals over property, equal rights between genders, environmental concern and lack of capital punishment. Most importantly, it was a system that required restitution for wrong rather than punishment. The effectiveness of the body of law is reflected in the great respect given it by its citizens. The law was so revered and honored by the people that there were neither courts needed nor police forces required to enforce it.

    IRISH HISTORY & LAWS

    The Laws of a culture are an in-depth reflection of its people, their mores and way of life. For the ancient Irish, the Law was the single most important factor in both public and private life in the land. The native legal system was fully developed long before the invasions of Christian, Danish or Anglo-Norman. Though somewhat disturbed by each of these events, it continued to serve until finally abolished in the early 17th century. In this study, I will attempt to provide a historical summary and a sketch of the main features of the Brehon Law and it’s reflection on the Irish culture of the early Iron Age. Thus there will be a number of disagreements with later versions of the Law, especially after the 8th century CE. I will also attempt to correct some of the more common misconceptions especially as they relate to the law and the lawgivers themselves.

    When It Began

    We will likely never know just when the rudiments of Brehon Law were laid down.

    The first mention of law in ancient texts are casual comments that shed little light.

     For example, there is the brief mention of the Firbolg and Tuatha de Danann negotiating “…under the Laws of Battle,” during the prelude to the First Battle of Moyturra. There is also brief mention that Amergin, chief poet (Fíli) of the Milesians, was skilled in “Law Craft.” Such references are hardly definitive.

    Though we don’t have an exact date for the birth of the Law, there are clues that indicate development during the bronze age (2,300 to 0900 BC).

    For example, the lack of capital punishment and fines for major offenses was quite common throughout Europe during the bronze age and very reminiscent of the Irish Law. The Warrior classes that developed during the iron age took a much harsher approach to punishment including death by various means. For this reason and others, it appears that Brehon Law pre-dated the iron age.

    We also do not know which of the early Irish cultures planted and nurtured the Brehon seed. However, since the late bronze-age Milesians were of a warrior class aristocracy, the absence of capital punishment suggests another and earlier culture. It therefor seems logical to credit the middle bronze age Tuatha de Danann with major contribution to formation of the Brehon Law, if not outright development.

    Whatever the case, major development of at least a rudimentary form of the law apparently began between the 18th and 13th centuries BC. A Matter of Honor

    Brehon Law continued to remain the law of the Irish until finally extinguished during the Cromwellian onslaught of the 17th century. The durability of the Law for nearly 3-millenium is astounding. The reason for its unparalleled strength and longevity was the sense of honor held by the people whom it governed. The laws were laws of users. That is, they attained their authority from public opinion. They were an expression of the moral power of the people. That moral power was the code of honor reflected throughout both ancient law and wisdom texts. An individuals word was his or her bond.

    As laws of users, no law could be changed without approval of the people. Thus any enactment of a new law or a modification to an existing law could only be accomplished in open forum of the assembled people. Thus though Rí and Noble might campaign for a specific law, it took a majority vote of all tribal free citizens to effect enactment. The Brehon Law truly was a Law of the people, by the people and for the people.

    The Law-givers

    What is today known as the “Brehon Law” is more properly known as Fénechas, the law of the Féine, the free land tillers. The name Brehon is an Anglicization for the name Breitheamh, the scholars of law. It was these scholars that studied and maintained the large body of legal material from the earliest of times down into the near modern era in a unique role that is generally misunderstood today.

    The Brehons are frequently described as Judges, but this is in error. Their role was one of arbitrator and legal advisor to the ruler.

    In pre-Norman times, it was the Ri (King or Queen) that passed judgement, when necessary, following recitation of applicable law and advice from the Brehon. In the case of Monastery Law it was the Bishop who passed judgement.

    It was not until late 12th century that legal experts began being appointed to serve as Judges. Even then, such appointment was generally limited to Norman dominated areas.

    The resident Irish clung tenaciously to their old customs. Not until the 17th century was the old Brehon law at last broken. As the legal repositories and interpreters of the law, Brehons held great influence within the community.

    Traditionally, they were subsidized by a particular Ri and had free lands on which to graze herds and grow crops for their maintenance.

    Those not so attached lived on a combination of their fees and farming activities. The legal rules were frequently very complicated and many considerations had to be made.

    Thus outsiders could not hope to master the intricacies. However, though the field of law was limited, the Brehon had to be extremely careful, for he or she was liable for damages if a false legal opinion was made and besides forfeiting the fee, the inaccurate Brehon was also liable for damages.

    To become a Brehon, the potential legal expert had to go through a rigorous, well-defined disciplined course of study.

    Following completion of the course, the potential Brehon then was required to submit to an examination of already practicing Brehons.

    Then, only if the candidate was found worthy was he or she permitted to enter the profession. In ancient times, the Brehon was seen as a mysterious individual of inspiration over whom deity kept watch.

    It was believed that if a Brehon deviated from the truth, great blotches would appear on his or her cheeks.

    The traditional badge of office was a torque, which was believed, would tighten when false statement was made, and loosen when truth was given.

    The well-known Brehon, Moraann, son of Carbery Cinncat (a Munster King in the first century) wore a sin or chain of gold which functioned in such fashion.

    Why It Worked

    The durability of the Law is astounding. Existing in Ireland long before the common era, it remained the favored system by Irish and Norman alike until the 17the century and the reign of Queen Elizabeth. This in spite of the fact that English writers were always strong in their condemnation of the Brehon law and a number of acts of parliament were taken against it. Parliament even went so far as to declare it an act of treason for English settlers to use it. In defiance of such bans, English settlers who lived outside the pale adopted Irish custom, manner of dress and even the law, all of which they became as attached to as the Irish themselves.

    The reason for the durability of the Brehon law was the people themselves.

    The entire existing body of literature of Ireland shows the great respect the Irish people held for justice and law, and an abhorrence for unjust decisions.

    As late as the beginning of the 17th century, Sir John Davies, the Attorney General for James I stated “…there is no nation of people under the sunne that doth love equal and indifferent justice better than the Irish…” The penal system that the English throne and parliament would forcibly impose thereafter, would soon bring unfortunate change.

    These tracts are the most important source of knowledge about the pre-Norman Irish. The information that can be gleaned here can be supplemented by information from other texts and manuscripts, thereby giving us at least a glimpse of the practical side of the Irish, void of the modern neo-pagan mysticism that tends to fabricate a myth of its own.

    You might well ask, “If the Brehon Law was so great, why did the founders of the Republic acclaim their rich legal legacy instead of retaining the English common law? There are a number of reasons. The primary reason was that the English government had waged a very successful centuries long campaign to eradicate the Brehon Law from the Irish consciousness. Secondly, at the time of the founding of the Republic, the archaic tribal nature of the Law, the scarcity of manuscripts and the difficulty in translation provided a truly formidable task.

     Even today, detailed knowledge of the Brehon Law is generally little known to the Irish people. Sure, many books on the subject have been written. But such books were written by scholars for other scholars and not for the common citizen. It is indeed a shame for the old Laws are much more than recordings of ancient legal system. They are a sometimes-detailed look into the minds and hearts of a once rich and still proud culture. Hopefully, the work of individual scholars and organizations such as “The Irish Legal History Society” and “The Irish Texts Society” can continue to encourage and advance the knowledge of Irish Law and thereby help us understand more fully a culture unique in European history.

    The majority of law-texts date only from the early 1120′s CE.

     By this I mean that the date of a manuscript is the date of its writing.

    However, the text can be and often is of a much earlier period. This is determined on the basis of linguistic and historical considerations. Such text dating can sometimes identify a very narrow range of a few years, while other texts can only be dated to within a century or two.

    Such analysis by linguistic and legal scholars have thus constructed a picture of a continuous legal system in Ireland from the Old Irish period (c.600-900), through the Middle Irish period (c.900-1200) into what is called the classical Modern Irish period (c.1200-1650).

    The end of the tradition came with the Cromwellian scourge of Ireland in the 17th century.

    The four texts considered the most important of the early period are Bretha Nemed Toisech, written in the 8th century, the Senchus Mór, written in the beginning of the eighth century, the Cáin Fuitherbe written in 683 and the Collectio Canonum Hibernensis written in the early 8th century.

    The first three are written in Gaelic while the latter is written in Latin and thus renders it suspect to considerations of non-native tradition.

    These are the manuscripts upon which most of today’s theories about ancient Brehon Law are based.

    However, the foundation here is shaky for three primary reasons.

     First of all, the four listed texts are all products of monasteries and obviously reflect the Christian approach to the ancient Law and we will refer to them as Monastery Law in this study.

    Secondly, they all originated in a relatively localized area, the province of Munster. Therefor they provide a very narrow view of a most complex subject.

    Finally, we must consider the “creative” talents of the recording Christian clerics who were soldiers in the struggle for the souls of the embattled Irish.

     

    In their battles for the hearts, souls and wealth of Ireland, the Monk-scholars labored diligently to ‘Christianize’ Irish culture, including its history. The Annals of the Four Masters is an excellent example. Jewish chronology places the ‘beginning’, (the Creation) at 3,761BCE. The Christians follow suit with dates varying from then to 4,004 BCE. Irish history indicated a Calendar that began in 4,014 BCE. The real problem though was that the Firbolgs were recorded as coming to Ireland before the Biblical date of the flood.

    To correct such obvious short-comings, the clerical historians of the Annals threw out existing computations and started over settling on a 5,200 BCE date for creation with the flood occurring 2,242 years later.

    There were other monasterial creations, but the point is; much of the historical work found in the products of monasteries is strongly laced with fiction.

    Therefore, we must approach these documents with a healthy dose of critical objectivity.

    Brehon Law fell into two categories;

     Cain and Urradas.

    CAIN

    URRADAS

    Cain Law was that which applied to all of Ireland.

    Urradas was local Law.

     In the event of conflict between the two, Urradas (or local Law) took precedent.

    Thus each locality and/or Clan might well have its own set of Law. Since the Monasteries functioned as independent “clans,” under Brehon Law, their laws were modified to suit the individual Bishop-in-charge.

    Another point should be brought out. Any system of Law must be dynamic and adapt to the needs of its changing society. Early on, monasteries were small, with minute populations. They existed only at the discretion of the local Clan ruler. Thus, their law would mirror that of the ‘host’ clan by necessity. In time, as the monasteries, their wealth and populations grew, their increasing independence was reflected in the law.

     By the 8th century, Canon Law began to infiltrate the texts. A good example of this is reflected in early versions of monastery recorded law. Contention between monastery and clan (or Bishop and King) was settled by the King. Later, contention became a joint responsibility. Finally, when political and economic strength of the monastery was sufficient, contention became the sole responsibility of the Bishop.

    In the case of the Senchus Mor, often referred to as the Patrick’s Law, the opening section relates that it was written under Patrick’s supervision with 8 others in conference. Of these, two were Bishop’s, three were Kings, one a Poet and one a bona fide Brehon. Based on Patrick’s supposed involvement, the date for the compilation is given in many references as around 461 CE, as early as 438 in others. However, on the basis of linguistic analysis, the true date for the writing of the text is the early 8th century and its place of writing in the northern midlands.

    Apparently, the real author(s) were trying to apply legitimacy to their work by crediting it to the long dead Patrick.

    The original law texts written prior to the 8th century are long lost. Successive copies have been made down through time with commentaries and explanations appended or glossed in the margins. As an old fading copy was reproduced, glosses and appended commentaries sometimes worked their way into the body of the text.

    The result is that the manuscripts now existing are somewhat flawed. However, much of the additions can be identified as such through linguistic analysis. The law tracts were written in the oldest known dialect of the Gaelic language, called Bérla Féini. Even as early as the Old Irish period (600-900 CE) the Brehons had to be especially trained in it.

    So archaic did this dialect become that scholars from the Middle Irish period onward had great difficulty in translation and understanding, as their commentaries and glosses reflect.

    Additionally, the style of the Bérla Féini is peculiarly cryptic and abrupt. Incomplete sentences abound and catchwords holding specific meaning were sometimes not written down in full, but held in memory by the experts.

    Thus, it is relatively easy to separate the original text from later additions, thereby enabling fairly accurate dating.

    Translation is a different matter.

    The collective body of Brehon Law is considerable and all-inclusive of civil, military and criminal law.

     It regulated social action from the ruler down to the slave and established their rights and privileges. In civil law there were detailed rules for such things as property management, the industries which included building, mills, water courses, brewing, fishing weirs and even bees and honey. There were also laws governing the relationships between landlord and tenant, professional fees, the duties of father and son, duties of foster-parents and foster-children, etc.

    There were also laws for distress or seizure of goods, for trespass and evidence, etc. In the area of criminal law, offences and their penalties were minutely detailed, Killing (both human and non-human) wounding, theft and all nature of willful damage, accidental injury were listed along with exact compensation required.

    Some of the unique features of early Brehon Law, compared to our modern law, included recognition of personal responsibility scaled to ones position in society, the priority of individuals over property, equal rights between genders, environmental concern and lack of capital punishment. Most importantly, it was a system that required restitution for wrong rather than punishment. The effectiveness of the body of law is reflected in the great respect given it by its citizens. The law was so revered and honored by the people that there were neither courts needed nor police forces required to enforce it.

    Part 1; Origins

    Part 2; Law texts

     

    Part 3; Clan and

    social classes

     

    Part 4; Women’s Rights

     

    Part 5; Professionals

     

    Part 6; Land ownership

    and use

     

    Part 7; Property

     

    Part 8; Legal tender

     

    Part 9; Contracts

     

    Part 10; Distraints

    and fasting

     

    Part 11; Summation

    and appendix

     

    Part 12; Glossary

     

    divider  I rish society, up through the Iron Age, was based on the family unit. The family traditionally consisted of living parents and their children. The next larger unit came to be known as the Sept, which consisted of a closely related group of families such as the families of children of one set of parents and normally bore the same surname. The Clan (from clann meaning children) was the next larger unit and counted lineage from one ancestor. The Tuath (tribe) was generally considered the smallest political unit. It’s components were formed of several septs, houses or clans which likewise claimed descent from a common ancestor. The adoption of non-blood related individuals or groups into the Clan was a general practice. However, it required the formal approval or consent from the Clan members (Fine). Such a process resulted in a generous mixture of outside blood and the thus in many Clans the theory of one ancestor for all members became, in fact, just theory. Some leading families kept careful records of genealogy to prove unblemished lineage, but with the widespread practice of adoption, it would seem that some creative recording was likely.

            The law recognized several general divisions or classes of society and set forth the rights, duties and privileges of all. The main (but not the only) consideration of rank was property. However, there were conditions in which an individual could pass from a lower rank to the next, provided they were honorable and industrious. Likewise, an individual could also pass to a lower rank for a variety of reasons, including illegal and/or dishonorable Kings.

     The various classes of society were as follows:

     

    Part 1; Origins

    Part 2; Law texts

     

    Part 3; Clan and

    social classes

     

    Part 4; Women’s Rights

     

    Part 5; Professionals

     

    Part 6; Land ownership

    and use

     

    Part 7; Property

     

    Part 8; Legal tender

     

    Part 9; Contracts

     

    Part 10; Distraints

    and fasting

     

    Part 11; Summation

    and appendix

     

    Part 12; Glossary

     

    divider  At first glance, the surviving law texts carry a generally patriarchal tone. Women seem to be relegated to subservial and domestic roles. However, this was not always the case. The Biblical admonition that woman should submit to her husband was contrary to early Irish tradition, and no doubt, vigorously opposed. Objective analysis reveals considerable evidence that the Irish women, from the earliest of times, were equal partners to the men in war, love and peace. Just as the men, women could and did hold whatever social rank and profession they desired according to ability and opportunity. This included the professions and even tribal leaderships. Consider the relating of the invasion of the Milesian force in south Munster where the opposing army was led by Queen Eriu. Then there was Fidelm, the banfili of Connacht, who met Queen Medb enroute to the great cattle raid on Ulster, one tribal leader and one seeress, both women. The mythological tales certainly give pause for consideration. However, more to the point, if we look closely at the law-texts, we can catch glimpses of a more balanced viewpoint. This is especially true in the portions of Law dealing with marriage and divorce. It is quite plain that the women were absolutely equal to men in property matters. A woman was free to wed whomever she chose. Neither husband nor wife could sell, barter or make contract for the property of the other. Either could divorce the other. Upon divorce, property was divided by the same ratio as was held by the each when wed. For example, if the bride had twice as many cows as the groom upon marriage, the woman kept twice as many cows as her ex-husband upon divorce. Free to wed and even divorce at their own choosing; absolutely independent in matters of property, the women of the Irish were not chattels by any stretch of a biased imagination. Even the Crith Gablach in discussing the privileges of man of noble class, states “To his wife belongs the right to be consulted on every subject.”

     A look at history seems in order.

    Briugu

    Hospitality was a major feature of Irish culture. Under Brehon Law, all householders had some obligation to provide hospitality to free persons. The greater responsibility was that of the Rí who appointed an individual to ensure obligations of hospitality for the tribe was met. This office was called briugu (later “brughaid”). Mensal lands and herds were provided to support the operation of the hostelry. The Briugu could refuse no free person and their retinue. If he were to do so, he summarily lost his title and position. The office was usually filled by either one of noble birth or a wealthy non-noble who exhibited the desired abilities and characteristics. The role seems to have been much prized as a non-noble could acquire nemedh stature as well as being lucrative in material terms. According to Kelly, the office of briugu survived in recognizable form into the 16th century.

    Cleric

    The early law texts reveal a somewhat different Irish church and clergy than some annals would have us believe. Canon Law was followed only when convenient to the purposes of the monastery. At other times, Brehon Law filled the gaps. First of all, by the 8th century, the church was a very political organization and becoming wealthy. Leading churchmen were often of noble Irish lineage – sometimes even kings – such as Cormac Mac Airt. Frequently the Abbot was a member of the kin-group of the territory. It was through these links with secular power that the Church gained privilege and influence. As influence was gained, monastery law reflected the changes. The Druid was being relegated to a lesser role and the Bishop achieved equal and sometimes greater status to the king.

     

    Part 1; Origins

    Part 2; Law texts

     

    Part 3; Clan and

    social classes

     

    Part 4; Women’s Rights

     

    Part 5; Professionals

     

    Part 6; Land ownership

    and use

     

    Part 7; Property

     

    Part 8; Legal tender

     

    Part 9; Contracts

     

    Part 10; Distraints

    and fasting

     

    Part 11; Summation

    and appendix

     

    Part 12; Glossary

     

    divider  At the beginning of the Iron Age, all land was common property. As such it belonged to the tribe rather than an individual. As common property, it could be re-apportioned to meet changing requirements of the tribal members. As time passed however, the custom of common property began to slowly erode. Lands held by some families remained in their hands for such extended periods, they began to be considered as private property. Still, very little of Ireland was held as private property until the incursions of the Vikings in the 9th century and the Invasions of the Normans in the 12th century began to bring considerable change to Irish law and custom including female disenfranchisement and land-holding laws.

            The earliest records of land tenure, are generally written by English hands. Therefor, some lack of understanding can be expected. For example, a Chief or Rí may have held a particular section of land by custom. To the English mind, possession was the greater part of law. Thus, the recorder may have assumed title when in fact, the land could have been reassigned by majority vote of Clan members. The land held by a tribe or clan was divided into holdings by the smaller groups (family and sept) in a more-or-less permanent arrangement. Each smaller group’s holdings were considered separate and was not interfered with by any other group of the tribe. Land held by an individual was under one of five arrangements.

    The Tribe or Clan chief held a portion of mensal land for as long as he or she held office. In this case, mensal land means property set aside to support the additional responsibilities of rulership.

    Non-movable

    Non-movable property included buildings. There were laws that dealt with all form of loss and damage caused by another whether willful or non-willful. There were also minimal standards required for certain elements of society. For example, a bo-aíre was required (according to Críth Gablach) to have a dwelling of at least 27 feet in diameter, an outhouse of 15 feet in diameter, a barn, pig-sty, calf-pen, sheep-pen and a kiln.

           Violation of ones house, whether by damage or trespass, was a major offense. To look into a house without invitation could cost a fine of one cow. To cross a persons courtyard or to open the door without permission could cost a fine of two cows.

    Movable

    Like non-movable property, there were laws that dealt with loss and trespass as well as minimal standards according to social status. Turning to the ocaíre (small farmer) again as listed in Crith Gablach, all items must be owned and not borrowed or on loan. The list includes 7 cows, 1 bull, 1 ox, 7 pigs and 7 sheep. However as Kelly points out, the ratio given of cattle to sheep and pigs is questionable. Archeological evidence indicates that the proportion between species was about 80% cows, 10% pigs and 10% sheep. The Crith Gablach goes on to specify that the next higher grade of farmer must have 10 of each specie plus a bull and an ox.

    COINAGE

    Coinage did not come into general use until the 11th century CE. Prior to that time, the most common medium of exchange was cattle. With no fixed currency, the practiced system of exchange was very complex, especially in those texts dating from the 11th century onward. The following list of terms are those that applied during that period. It should be noted that there is considerable disagreement between texts in terms of value. What I present seems to be the generally accepted average. An easy reference table is included in the appendix.

    Cumal

    The literal meaning of the term cumal is female slave. And although slavery was practiced in Ireland as in the rest of Europe, in terms of the law it merely established a certain value. A cumal was valued at 3 sets, 6 milk cows, or 6 ounces of silver.

    Sét

    A unit of value for honor-price. Honor price (log-enech) varied according to social standing. The honor price of a Clan ruler was 42 sets (21 cows), down to a female calf for a fer midboth (a youth living on his father’s land). The value of a sét was 1/3rd the value of a cumal, 1/2 a milk cow or 2 ounces of silver.

    Cattle

    Cattle were the primary medium of exchange. The basic unit was the milk cow accompanied by her calf. A three year-old dry heifer is half the value of the milk cow, a two year-old heifer is one third, the yearling heifer one fourth and a yearling bullock was valued at one-eighth.

     

    LEGAL CONTRACTS

    The most common legal act in Irish society was the verbal contract. Such an act was called “cor bel” or literally “putting to the lips.” Contracts were an exchange of obligation and a matter of honor. The amount of value involved in an individual contract could not exceed the honor-price of the contracting party(ies). If a contract was desired that exceeded an individual’s honor-price, he or she must obtain permission from the kin who would be liable in case of default.

           There were certain situations in which a contract was invalid. These included contracts made under duress, in fear or in ignorance. Also invalid were fraudulent contracts and those made in drunkenness, except when it related to co-ploughing and the sale of stolen properties.

    Adjustment of Contracts

    A contract, in which there is no fraud or other impediments, turns out to be fraudulent, may turn out to be unfair to one of the contracting parties. In such case, terms of the contract may be adjusted to attain an even and fair contract. The aggrieved party has ten days for ‘discovering’ of defects in the contract.

    Athgabál (distraint) provided the procedure whereby an individual could enforce a legal claim. It was a simple procedure of legal seizing of the property of another against whom you held claim and was the primary means of law enforcement. In post-Norman times, it became a primary target for English legislation as they battled to replace Irish Brehon Law with English Law and administration of justice by English courts. Laws were quite specific on how distraint could be initiated and conducted. The rules also provided severe penalties for illegal application or conduct of distraint. Since cattle and other livestock seemed to be the property most likely to be distrained, detailed laws specified how they should be kept and maintained. For example, cattle must be kept in a clean and well-fenced pasture. The person holding them is responsible for their maintenance and well-being. The cattle may not be mixed with other kinds of animal. Sick cattle may not be kept with well cattle, etc.

            The details of procedure must be closely followed. First, the plaintiff must give formal notice (this normally included reputable witnesses) of intent to impound property of the defendant. Then there is a delay of from one to five days to give the defendant time to respond. The length of the delay depended on the exact nature of the claimed violation.

           The defendant may end that matter at this point by simply paying whatever fine is due or otherwise filling his obligation. In some cases, obligation could be filled by making a pledge to indicate his willingness to settle the issue. If the defendant fails to take action during the delay period, the plaintiff can then legally distrain the property or cattle. However, distraint must take place in the morning hours with a law advocate in presence. In the case of cattle, they are then driven to a private field and the plaintiff is responsible for their care and maintenance.

     

    Written Contracts

    Written contracts were very rare outside of the Church. However, Canon Law required that agreements concerning the Church be written down. Thus, the early monastery law tracts did recognize the validity of such.

     

    Pledges

    Ancient Irish law relied greatly on the use of gell (pledges) to ensure that legal obligation was met. A pledge was something of value given by its owner for a fixed period into the custody of another. Giving of a pledge signified the givers willingness to accept the claim of another or – in the event of dispute – submit the issue to arbitration.

    In this essay I have given a very brief view of an old and complex tradition of law. I am neither lawyer or language expert, but I am a student of the human condition with a passion for truth about my ancient forebears. I have tried to view the law with the eyes of a citizen, rather than a lawyer. What I find is a complex, but marvelously efficient system that reflected the society and more importantly, ensured the rights of the citizen. Considerable study remains to be done. My fervent hope is that such studies be done without the religious and ethnic bias of the past.

    APPENDIX

     

    Social Rank

     

    rí ruírech (ri rureh)

    king of Ireland

    rí túath (ri too-ah)

    overking of a few petty kingdoms

    rí tuathe (ri too-ah-he)

    king of a petty kingdom

    aire forgill (ar-eh for-gill)

    noble of superior testimony

    aire tuíseo (ar-eh too-ih-sho)

    noble of precedence

    aire ard (ar-eh ahrd)

    high nobl

     

    Here is provided the a list of the Gaelic terms used in this article. The assumed pronunciations are shown by modified International Phonetic Alphabet symbols. The Gaelic term is given emboldened, followed by IPA phonetics, with the italicized definition.

     

    A

    aigne / ag´n´a / advocate

    aire / ar´e / freeman

    aithech / ath´ech / commoner, churl

    Amergin / ah´mehr´gihn / Poet of the Milesians

    amuis / a´vus / attendant, bodyguard

    Arae / ar´eh / charioteer

    ard / ahrd´ / high ranking person

    athgabál / ath´gava´l / distraint, recovery

    banfili / ban´fih´lih´ / , wise woman

     

     

    B

    bérla féini / b´eh:rluh fe:nih´ / literally language of the free people. Early legal language

    bó inláeg / bo´in´lah:g / pregnant cow

    bo-aíre /bo´ ah´reh / free farmer

    bothach / bo´thach /·cottier, one who lives in a hut

    Brehon / breh´hon / see breitheamh

    Breitheamh / brih´them / Arbitrator, law historian

    Brithem / see breitheamh

    briugu / briu´gu / hospitaller

    brughaid / bru´aid·/ see briugu

     

                   C

    cáin / ka:n / Law of province or nation

    céile ·/ ke:l´e / free memberss of the clan

    clann / klan / members of a tribal unit descended from a common ancestor

    coinmed / koN´v´ed / billelting

    colpthac / kolp´hach / two year old heifer

    cor bel / kor bel / verbal contract

    cumal / kuval / female slave

     

     

    D

    daer-fudir / da´r fu´ir / bonded tenants without rights

    dáilem / da:l´ev /·food server

    daírt / daR´t / yearling heifer

    dartaid / daR´tid / yearling bullock

    dercaid /·derkid´/ lookut, watchman

    dire / di:r´e / payment of fine

    doernemed /·do´ir nev´id / lower class of the priviliged

    Druí, druíh / drooy / wise one – may also be spelled Draí, Draoí, Draoí or Druíidh

     

     

    E

    éiric, éiraic / e:rik / fixed penalty

    F

    fáithliaig / fa:th´lee-ha / seer physician

    féine / fe:n´i / free people

    fénechas / fe:n´echas /; traditional law

    fénnid /·fe:N´id´ / warrior

    fer ·/ fer / man

    fer midboth / fer·mid´bo / man of middle huts or semi-independent youth

    Fíli ·/ fil´i / wise one

    fine ·/ fin´e / family, near kin

    Firbolg ·/ fir bolg / men of the bags, first Celtic invaders of Ireland

    Flaith / flah´ / noble

    forgill / for´g´el / superior testimony

    fuidir / fuj´ir´ / semi-free tenant

     

     

    G

    gabhalaichean / ga´val´kin / redistribution of land

    gell ·/ gel´ / a pledge to protect one’s honor

    giall ·/ giall´ / hostage

    gobae ·/ goveh / blacksmith

     

     

    L

    Liaig ·/ Lee-aj / leech physician

    lobad ·/ lovad / decay of forfeiture

    log-enech ·/ lo:g eNag / honor price

     

     

    M

    mensal / ·men´sal / land dedicated to the Rí for specific purpose

    Midach ·/ midach / medical doctor

    midboth ·/ mid´boh´ /

    Milesians · / mi´le´shyans´ / the Gaedels – last Celtic invaders of Ireland

    Mogturredh / moy´too´reh / legendary site of battle

     

     

    N

    Nemedh ·/ nev´ed / privileged person

     

     

    O

    ócaire ·/ o:gar´e / loest grade of freeman

    Ollam / oL´av / expert, master or chief

     

    R

    Rannaire ·/ RaNir´e / divider, carver (of meats)

    Rí ·/ Ri: / Ruler

    ruírech / rur:reh·/ ruler over more than one territory

     

     

    S

    saer / sair / wright, carpenter

    saer-fuidír / sair fuj´ir / highest of the fuidir class

    Samaisc / sav´ishk /· three-year-old heifer

    Scepul / skrebul / ·scruple, unit of value

    Senchléithe ·/ shen´ch´l´e:th´e / hereditary serf

    sept / sept ´/ branch of a clan

    sét / she:d / unit of value

    sin ·/ shin´ / chain neck-choker

     

     

    T

    Techt ·/ techt / courier, messenger

    troscud / troskud·/ legal fasting

    túath / too´ah / tribe, tribal territory

    Tuatha de Danann / too´aha deh da´nahn / people of the Goddess Danu

    tuathe / see túath

    tuíseo / too-ish´o / person of precedence

     

     

    U

    uasal / oo-ah´shal /·of noble birth

    Ungae / oongeh /· ounce

     

     

    Timeline of Irish history

    This is a timeline of Irish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Ireland and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Ireland. See also the list of Lords and Kings of Ireland and Irish heads of state and the list of years in Ireland.

    This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

    Prehistory / Centuries: 1st •2nd •3rd •4th •5th •6th •7th •8th •9th •10th •11th •12th •13th •14th •15th •16th •17th •18th •19th •20th •21st

    Mesolithic and Neolithic periods

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 16,000 BC                      During the Last Glacial Maximum, Ireland is covered in ice sheets

    c. 12,000 BC                      A narrow channel forms between Ireland and southwest Scotland

    c. 8000 BC                          Mesolithic hunter-gatherers migrate to Ireland

    c. 6500 BC                          Mesolithic hunter-gatherers occupy sites such as that at Mount Sandel in Northern Ireland

    c. 4000 BC                          Agriculture (including the keeping of livestock, and crop farming) has its beginnings in Ireland, at sites such as the Céide Fields in Mayo

    c. 3500 BC                          The Neolithic peoples of the Boyne Valley build a complex of chamber tombs, standing stones and enclosures over a period of hundreds of years. (Newgrange itself is dated to 3300-2900 BC).

    Bronze and Iron ages

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 2000 BC                          Bronze Age technologies start to arrive in Ireland, including the moulding of Ballybeg type flat axes, and the beginnings of copper mining at Mount Gabriel in Co. Cork, and Ross Island in Co. Kerry.

    c. 500 BC                            During the Iron Age in Ireland, Celtic influence in art, language and culture begins to take hold.

    c. 300 BC                            Murder of Clonycavan Man, according to radiocarbon dating

    c. 200 BC                            La Tène influence from continental Europe influences carvings on the Turoe stone, Bullaun, Co. Galway.

    c. 100 BC                            Additional works expand the site at Emain Macha (first occupied in the Neolithic period)

    1st century

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 100 AD                            Construction of a series of defensive ditches between the provinces of Ulster and Connacht

    2nd century

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 140 AD                            Ptolemy’s Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas

    3rd century

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 220 AD                            The Annals of the Four Masters, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, and other semi-historical (non-contemporary) texts, place Cormac mac Airt as a longstanding High King of Ireland.

    (The Annals date his reign as 226-266, but scholars vary in their assessment of Mac Airt’s reign as legend or historical fact)

    4th century

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 300 AD                            Pollen data records from the late Iron Age indicate resurgence in human activity after a relatively stagnant period

    5th century

    Year       Date      Event

    c. 400                   Niall Noígíallach is placed by Medieval texts as a legendary Goidelic High King of Ireland (the Annals of the Four Masters dates his reign as 378-405)

    431                       Palladius is sent as the first bishop “to the Irish believing in Christ” by Pope Celestine

    432                       According to the Annals of Ulster (and other chronicles) Saint Patrick returns to Ireland.

    6th century

    Year       Date      Event

    536                       A seemingly global climate event (possibly a volcanic winter) causes crop failures and famine in Ireland.

    563                       Irish monastic influence during the Golden Age peaks with the foundation of monastic schools by Columba and Brendan at Iona and Clonfert.

    Columbanus would later set up similar institutions in continental Europe, Fursa in East Anglia and Gaul, Aidan at Lindisfarne. Etc.

    7th century

    Year       Date      Event

    664-666                              Several sources record a pervasive “yellow plague” on the island.

    8th century

    Year       Date      Event

    795                       First Viking raids on Iona, Rathlin Island, Inishmurray and Inishbofin.

    9th century

    Year       Date      Event

    830                       Óengus of Tallaght writes the Martyrology of Tallaght, the Prologue of which speaks of the last vestiges of paganism in Ireland

    852                       Vikings Ivar Beinlaus and Olaf the White land in Dublin Bay and establish a fortress – close to where the city of Dublin now stands

    10th century

    Year       Date      Event

    980                       The King of Dublin Olaf Cuaran abdicates following defeat at the Battle of Tara to Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill.

    988/9                   Máel Sechnaill demands (and is paid) “tribute” by the Vikings at Dublin (this tribute date is sometimes recognised as the “foundation date” of Dublin as a city)

    11th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1014      23 April Defeat of Máel Mórda mac Murchada and Viking forces by the armies of Brian Boru marks the beginning of the decline of Viking power in Ireland.

     

    12th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1167                     Following exile by Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Dermot MacMurrough seeks support from Henry II of England to reclaim his Kingship.

    1171                     Henry II of England lands at Waterford and declares himself Lord of Ireland.

    1175      6 October            The Treaty of Windsor consolidates Norman influence in Ireland.

    13th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1216      12 November     Great Charter of Ireland issued by Henry III of England.

    1252                     The Annals of the Four Masters records a Summer-time heat-wave and drought.

    1297                     The first representative Irish Parliament (of the Lordship of Ireland) meets in Dublin.

     

    14th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1315      26 May Edward Bruce arrives in Ireland and rallies many Irish lords against Anglo-Norman control.

    1366                     The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed at Kilkenny to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland.

     

    15th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1472                     The Annals of the Four Masters records that the King Of England sent an exotic animal (possibly a giraffe) to Ireland.

    1490                     An earthquake takes place at Sliabh Gamh in County Mayo.

    1494      1 December        Edward Poyning, Henry VII of England’s Lord Deputy to Ireland, issued a declaration known as Poynings’ Law under which the Irish parliament was to pass no law without the prior consent of the English parliament.

    1497                     The Annals of the Four Masters refers to a famine which “prevailed through all Ireland”.

     

    16th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1534      11 June Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounced his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.

    1537      3 February          FitzGerald was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

    1542                     The Irish parliament passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which established a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.

    1570      25 February        Pope Pius V issued a papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.

    1575      May-Aug             The Annals of the Four Masters record a drought, in which no rain fell “from Bealtaine to Lammas”, which resulted in disease and plague.

    1577      November          The Annals of the Four Masters record that the Great Comet of 1577 “was wondered at by all universally”.

    1579      16 July  Second Desmond Rebellion: James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the 15th Earl of Desmond, landed a small force of rebels at Dingle.

    1594                     The Nine Years’ War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O’Neill and Red Hugh O’Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I’s authority in Ulster.

    17th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1607      14 September    The Flight of the Earls: The departure from Ireland of Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.

    1609                     Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians began on a large scale.

    1641      22 October         Irish Rebellion of 1641: Phelim O’Neill led the capture of several forts in the north of Ireland.

    1642                     Irish Confederate Wars: The Irish Catholic Confederation was established, under the nominal overlordship of Charles I of England, with its capital at Kilkenny.

    1646      28 March            The Supreme Council of the Irish Catholic Confederation signed an agreement with a representative of Charles I, which procured some rights for Catholics in return for their military support of the royalists in England.

    The members of the Supreme Council were arrested. The General Assembly renounced the agreement with England.

    1647                     A more favorable agreement was reached with Charles’s representative, which promised toleration of Catholicism, a repeal of Poynings’ Law, and recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war.

    18th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1740                     Extreme winters in successive years result in poor harvests, causing a largescale famine in which between 310,000 and 480,000 die.

    1760      February             Battle of Carrickfergus: A French invasion.

    1782                     After agitation by the Irish Volunteers, the Parliament of Great Britain passed a number of reforms – including the repeal of Poynings’ Law – collectively referred to as the Constitution of 1782.

    1796      December           Expédition d’Irlande: Attempted French invasion.

    1798      24 May Battle of Ballymore-Eustace: A miscarried surprise attack on the British garrison at Ballymore in County Kildare was counterattacked and defeated.

    22 August           Irish Rebellion of 1798: One thousand French soldiers landed at Kilcummin in support of the rebellion.

    27 August           Battle of Castlebar: A combined French-Irish force defeated a vastly numerically superior British force at Castlebar.

    Irish Rebellion of 1798: The Republic of Connacht was proclaimed at Castlebar. First United Irishmen rebellion

    19th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1801      1 January            Acts of Union 1800 passed. The Kingdom of Ireland is annexed to Great Britain. ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.

    1803      23 July  Second United Irishmen rebellion: The Irish nationalist Robert Emmet attempted to seize Dublin Castle.

    1829      24 March            Catholic Emancipation: The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was passed, which allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament.

    1831      3 May   Tithe War: A force of one hundred and twenty armed police forcibly took possession of cattle belonging to a Roman Catholic priest in lieu of his compulsory tithe to the Anglican Church of Ireland.

    1834      17 December     Dublin and Kingstown Railway is opened as the first commercial railway in Ireland.

    1836                     Tithe War: The passage of the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 reduced the amount of the tithe and changed the manner of payment, which largely ended the unrest

    1845                     Great Irish Famine: A potato blight destroyed two-thirds of Ireland’s staple crop and lead to an estimated 1 million deaths and emigration of a further 1 million people.[26]

    1867      5 March               Fenian Rising.

    20th century

    Year       Date      Event

    1913      19 August           A Dublin businessman, William Martin Murphy, fired forty workers he suspected of belonging to the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union (ITGWU).

    26 August           Dublin Lockout: The ITGWU went on strike.

    1914      18 January          Dublin Lockout: The Trades Union Congress (TUC) rejected a call by the ITGWU to go on strike in their support. The strikers quit the union and returned to work.

    18 September    Government of Ireland Act, offering Irish Home Rule, passed but application simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I.

    1916      24 April Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led an action which seized key government buildings in Dublin, and issued the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.

    29 April Easter Rising: The leader of the uprising ordered his followers to surrender.

    1918      18 April Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.

    14 December     A general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.

    1919      21 January          The First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.

    21 January          Irish War of Independence: Volunteers of the Army of the Irish Republic kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.

    1921      3 May   Northern Ireland is established.

    1921      6 December        Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State

    1922      28 June Irish Civil War: Bombardment by Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War

    1923      24 May Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms – effectively ending the Civil War.

    1937      29 December     The Constitution of Ireland comes into force replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called “‘Éire’, or, in the English language, ‘Ireland’”

    1949      August  The Republic of Ireland Act is signed by the President of Ireland abolishing the remaining roles of the British monarch in the government of the Irish state.

    1955      14 December     Ireland joins the United Nations along with 16 other sovereign states.

    1969      August  Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of the Troubles.

    1972      March   The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).

    1973      1 January            Ireland joins the European Community along with Britain and Denmark.

    1973      June      The Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.

    1974      1 January            A power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers’ Council strike. The Assembly is suspended and later abolished.

    1985      15 November     The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement.

    1990      3 December        Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.

    1995                     Ireland enters the Celtic Tiger period which marks great economic growth for Ireland – which continues until 2007.

    1998      April      The Belfast Agreement is signed. As a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.

    1999                     Ireland yields its official currency the Irish pound and adopts the Euro.

    21st century

    Year       Date      Event

    2001      7 June   The twenty-first, twenty-third and twenty-sixth Amendments to the Constitution of Ireland, which provided for a universal ban on the death penalty, Ireland’s recognition of the International Criminal Court and its ratification of the Treaty of Nice, respectively, were all approved by referendum.

    2008      6 May   After leading a Fianna Fáil government for nearly 11 years, the Taoiseach Bertie Ahern retires – while under pressure due to corruption allegations.

    2009      2 October            The ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon is enabled through the passing of a second referendum on the subject.

    2011      1 February          An ongoing financial crisis places significant strain on the coalition government, and the 30th Dáil is dissolved.

     

    History of Ireland

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      (Redirected from Irish History)

    Part of a series on the

    History of Ireland

    Wenzel Hollar’s historical map of Ireland

    Chronology

    Prehistory

    Protohistory

    400–800

    800–1169

    1169–1536

    1536–1691

    1691–1801

    1801–1923

    Timeline of Irish history

    Peoples and polities

    Gaelic Ireland

    Lordship of Ireland

    Kingdom of Ireland

    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

    Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    Topics

    Battles Clans Kingdoms States Gaelic monarchs British monarchs Economic history

     History of the Irish language

    Prehistoric Ireland spans a period between the first known settlement around 8000 BC until the emergence of “protohistoric” Gaelic Ireland at the time of Christianization in the 5th century; Celtic Christianity had subsumed or replaced the earlier polytheism by the end of the 6th century.

    From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions wrought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island’s various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The Norman invasion of the late 12th century marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct English and, later, British involvement in Ireland. In 1177, Prince John Lackland was made Lord of Ireland by his father Henry II of England at the Council of Oxford.[1] The Crown did not attempt to assert full control of the island until after Henry VIII’s repudiation of papal authority over the Church in England and subsequent rebellion of the Earl of Kildare in Ireland threatened English hegemony there. Henry proclaimed himself King of Ireland and also tried to introduce the English Reformation, which failed in Ireland. Attempts to either conquer or assimilate the Irish lordships into the Kingdom of Ireland provided the initial impetus for a series of Irish military campaigns between 1534 and 1603. This period was marked by a Crown policy of plantation, involving the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers, and the consequent displacement of the pre-plantation Catholic landholders. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more pronounced in the early seventeenth century, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.

    The 1613 overthrow of the Catholic majority in the Irish Parliament was realized principally through the creation of numerous new boroughs which were dominated by the new settlers. By the end of the seventeenth century, recusant Roman Catholics, as adherents to the old religion were now termed, representing some 85% of Ireland’s population, were then banned from the Irish Parliament. Protestant domination of Ireland was confirmed after two periods of war between Catholics and Protestants in 1641-52 and 1689-91. Political power thereafter rested entirely in the hands of a Protestant Ascendancy minority, while Catholics and members of dissenting Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations at the hands of the Penal Laws. The Irish Parliament was abolished in 1801 in the wake of the republican United Irishmen Rebellion and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union. Although promised a repeal of the Test Act, Catholics were not granted full rights until Catholic Emancipation was attained throughout the new UK in 1829. This was followed by the first Reform Act 1832, a principal condition of which was the removal of the poorer British and Irish freeholders from the franchise.

    The Irish Parliamentary Party strove from the 1880s to attain Home Rule through the parliamentary constitutional movement, eventually winning the Home Rule Act 1914, though this Act was suspended at the outbreak of World War I. The Easter Rising staged by Irish republicans two years later brought physical force republicanism back to the forefront of Irish politics.

    In 1922, after the Irish War of Independence and the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the larger part of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom to become the independent Irish Free State; and after the 1937 constitution, Ireland. The six north eastern counties, known as Northern Ireland, remained within the United Kingdom. The Irish Civil War followed soon after the War of Independence. The history of Northern Ireland has since been dominated by sporadic sectarian conflict between (mainly Catholic) Nationalists and (mainly Protestant) Unionists. This conflict erupted into the Troubles in the late 1960s, until an uneasy peace thirty years later.

     

    Prehistoric Ireland

    What is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. While some possible paleolithic tools have been found in Ireland, none of the finds are convincing of paleolithic inhabitants in Ireland.

    The earliest inhabitants of Ireland were mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived sometime after 8000 BC when the climate had become more hospitable following the retreat of the polar icecaps (although remains thought to be from before 9000 BC have been found at Kilgreany Cave in County Waterford).

    While some authors take the view that a land bridge connecting Ireland to England still existed at that time, more recent studies indicate that Ireland was separated from Britain by c. 14,000 BC, when the climate was still cold and local ice caps persisted in parts of the country.

    The people remained hunter-gatherers until about 6000 BC, It is argued this is when the world’s first signs of complex agriculture started to show with the discovery of the Céide Fields in co.

    Mayo, leading to the establishment of a high Neolithic culture, characterized by the appearance of pottery, polished stone tools, rectangular wooden houses and communal megalithic tombs. Some of these tombs are huge stone monuments, such as the Passage Tombs of Newgrange, (arguably the oldest astronomically designed structure in the world) Knowth and Dowth, many of them astronomically aligned (most notably, Newgrange). Four main types of megalithic tomb have been identified: Portal Tombs, Court Tombs, Passage Tombs and Wedge Tombs. In Leinster and Munster, individual adult males were buried in small stone structures, called cists, under earthen mounds and were accompanied by distinctive decorated pottery. This culture apparently prospered, and the island became more densely populated. Near the end of the Neolithic new types of monuments developed, such as circular embanked enclosures and timber, stone and post and pit circles

    The Bronze Age properly began once copper was alloyed with tin to produce true bronze artifacts; this took place around 2000 BC, when some Ballybeg flat axes and associated metalwork was produced. The period preceding this, in which Lough Ravel and most Ballybeg axes were produced, is known as the Copper Age or Chalcolithic, and commenced about 2500 BC. This period also saw the production of elaborate gold and bronze ornaments, weapons and tools. There was a movement away from the construction of communal megalithic tombs to the burial of the dead in small stone cists or simple pits, which could be situated in cemeteries or in circular earth or stone built burial mounds known respectively as barrows and cairns. As the period progressed, inhumation burial gave way to cremation and by the Middle Bronze Age; cremains were often placed beneath large burial urns.

    Newgrange, built c3200 BC, is an Irish passage tomb located at Brú na Bóinne.

    The Iron Age in Ireland began about 600 BC. The period between the start of the Iron Age and the historic period (AD 431) saw the gradual infiltration of small groups of Celtic-speaking people into Ireland, with items of the continental Celtic La Tene style being found in at least the northern part of the island by about 300 BC.

    ISBN 0-7171-2829-6 the result of a gradual blending of Celtic and indigenous cultures would result in the emergence of Gaelic culture by the fifth century.

    It is also during the fifth century that the main over-kingdoms of In Tuisceart, Airgialla, Ulaid, Mide, Laigin, Mumhain, Cóiced Ol nEchmacht began to emerge (see Kingdoms of ancient Ireland). Within these kingdoms a rich culture flourished. The society of these kingdoms was dominated by an upper class consisting of aristocratic warriors and learned people, which possibly included Druids.

    Linguists realized from the 17th century onwards that the language spoken by these people, the Goidelic languages, was a branch of the Celtic languages. This is usually explained as a result of invasions by Celts from the continent. However, other research has postulated that the culture developed gradually and continuously, and that the introduction of Celtic language and elements of Celtic culture may have been a result of cultural exchange with Celtic groups in South West continental Europe from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.

    The hypothesis that the native Late Bronze Age inhabitants gradually absorbed Celtic influences has since been supported by some recent genetic research.

    The Romans referred to Ireland as Hibernia. Ptolemy in AD 100 records Ireland’s geography and tribes. Ireland was never formally a part of the Roman Empire, but Roman influence was often projected well beyond formal borders. Tacitus writes that an exiled Irish prince was with Agricola in Britain and would return to seize power in Ireland. Juvenal tells us that Roman “arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland”. In recent years, some experts have hypothesized that Roman-sponsored Gaelic forces (or perhaps even Roman regulars) mounted some kind of invasion around 100, but the exact relationship between Rome and the dynasties and peoples of Hibernia remains unclear.

    Irish confederations (the Scoti) attacked and some settled in Britain during the Great Conspiracy of 367. In particular, the Dál Riata settled in western Scotland and the Western Isles.

    Early Christian Ireland (400–800)

    Kevin’s monastery at Glendalough, County Wicklow

    The middle centuries of the first millennium AD marked great changes in Ireland. Niall Noigiallach (died c.450/455) laid the basis for the Uí Néill dynasty’s hegemony over much of western, northern and central Ireland. Politically, the former emphasis on tribal affiliation had been replaced by the 700s by that of patrilineal and dynastic background. Many formerly powerful kingdoms and peoples disappeared. Irish pirates struck all over the coast of western Britain in the same way that the Vikings would later attack Ireland. Some of these founded entirely new kingdoms in Pictland and, to a lesser degree, in parts of Wales. The Attacotti of south Leinster may even have served in the Roman military in the mid-to-late 300s.

    Perhaps it was some of the latter returning home as rich mercenaries, merchants, or slaves stolen from Britain or Gaul, that first brought the Christian faith to Ireland. Some early sources claim that there were missionaries active in southern Ireland long before St. Patrick. Whatever the route, and there were probably many, this new faith was to have the most profound effect on the Irish.

    Tradition maintains that in AD 432, St. Patrick arrived on the island and, in the years that followed, worked to convert the Irish to Christianity. On the other hand, according to Prosper of Aquitaine, a contemporary chronicler, Palladius was sent to Ireland by the Pope in 431 as “first Bishop to the Irish believing in Christ”, which demonstrates that there were already Christians living in Ireland. Palladius seems to have worked purely as Bishop to Irish Christians in the Leinster and Meath kingdoms, while Patrick – who may have arrived as late as 461 – worked first and foremost as a missionary to the pagan Irish, in the more remote kingdoms in Ulster and Connacht.

    A page from the Book of Kells that opens the Gospel of John

    Patrick is traditionally credited with preserving the tribal and social patterns of the Irish, codifying their laws and changing only those that conflicted with Christian practices.

    He is credited with introducing the Roman alphabet, which enabled Irish monks to preserve parts of the extensive Celtic oral literature. The historicity of these claims remains the subject of debate and there is no direct evidence linking Patrick with any of these accomplishments. The myth of Patrick, as scholars refer to it, was developed in the centuries after his death.

    The Druid tradition collapsed, first in the face of the spread of the new faith, and ultimately in the aftermath of famine and plagues due to the extreme weather events of 535-536. Irish scholars excelled in the study of Latin learning and Christian theology in the monasteries that flourished shortly thereafter.

    Missionaries from Ireland to England and Continental Europe spread news of the flowering of learning, and scholars from other nations came to Irish monasteries. The excellence and isolation of these monasteries helped preserve Latin learning during the Early Middle Ages. The period of Insular art, mainly in the fields of illuminated manuscripts, metalworking, and sculpture flourished and produced such treasures as the Book of Kells, the Ardagh Chalice, and the many carved stone crosses that dot the island. Insular style was to be a crucial ingredient in the formation of the Romanesque and Gothic styles throughout Western Europe. Sites dating to this period include clochans, ringforts and promontory forts.

    Francis John Byrne describes the effect of the epidemics which occurred during this era: The plagues of the 660s and the 680s had a traumatic effect on Irish society. The golden age of the saints was over, together with the generation of kings who could fire a saga-writer’s imagination. The literary tradition looks back to the reign of the sons of Aed Slaine (Diarmait and Blathmac, who died in 665) as to the end of an era. Antiquaries, brehons, genealogiests and hagiographers, felt the need to collect ancient traditions before they were totally forgotten. Many were in fact swallowed by oblivion; when we examine the writing of Tirechan we encounter obscure references to tribes which are quite unknown to the later genealogical tradition. The laws describe a tribal society that was obsolescent, and the meaning and use of the word moccu dies out with archaic Old Irish at the beginning of the new century.

    The first English involvement in Ireland took place in this period. In the summer of AD 684 an English expeditionary force sent by Northumbrian King Ecgfrith invaded Ireland. The English forces seized booty and several captives, but they apparently did not stay in Ireland for long. The next English involvement in Ireland occurred some 500 years later, when the Normans invaded in 1169.

    Early medieval and Viking era (800–1166)

    Brian Boru, Irish hero who fought the Vikings

    Map showing the Viking settlements in Ireland

    The first recorded Viking raid in Irish history occurred in 795 when Vikings from Norway looted the island. Early Viking raids were generally fast-paced and small in scale. These early raids interrupted the golden age of Christian Irish culture and marked the beginning of two centuries of intermittent warfare, with waves of Viking raiders plundering monasteries and towns throughout Ireland. Most of those early raiders came from western Norway.

    The Vikings were expert sailors, who travelled in longships, and by the early 840s, had begun to establish settlements along the Irish coasts and to spend the winter months there. Vikings founded settlements in several places; most famously in Dublin. Written accounts from this time (early to Mid-840s) show that the Vikings were moving further inland to attack (often using rivers) and then retreating to their coastal headquarters.

    In 852 the Vikings landed in Dublin Bay and established a fortress. After several generations a group of mixed Irish and Norse ethnic background arose, the Gall-Gaels, ‘(Gall being the Old Irish word for foreign).

    In 902 CE the Vikings were pushed out of Ireland by the Irish king Muirecán. The Vikings fled to Wales by ship, but would however later return to retake Dublin.

    However, the Vikings never achieved total domination of Ireland, often fighting for and against various Irish kings. The Battle of Clontarf in 1014 began the decline of Viking power in Ireland. However the towns which Vikings had founded continued to flourish, and trade became an important part of the Irish economy.

    Norman Ireland (1168–1536)

    Norman Ireland-Arrival of the Normans

     Norman invasion of Ireland

    A tower house near Quin, County Clare. The Normans consolidated their presence in Ireland by building hundreds of castles and towers such as this.

    By the 12th century, Ireland was divided politically into a shifting hierarchy of petty kingdoms and over-kingdoms. Power was exercised by the heads of a few regional dynasties vying against each other for supremacy over the whole island. One of these men, King Diarmait Mac Murchada of Leinster was forcibly exiled by the new High King, Ruaidri mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair of the Western kingdom of Connacht. Fleeing to Aquitaine, Diarmait obtained permission from Henry II to recruit Norman knights to regain his kingdom. The first Norman knight landed in Ireland in 1167, followed by the main forces of Normans, Welsh and Flemings. Several counties were restored to the control of Diarmait, who named his son-in-law, the Norman Richard de Clare, known as Strongbow, heir to his kingdom. This troubled King Henry, who feared the establishment of a rival Norman state in Ireland. Accordingly, he resolved to establish his authority.

    With the authority of the papal bull Laudabiliter from Adrian IV, Henry landed with a large fleet at Waterford in 1171, becoming the first King of England to set foot on Irish soil. Henry awarded his Irish territories to his younger son John with the title Dominus Hiberniae (“Lord of Ireland”). When John unexpectedly succeeded his brother as King John of England, the “Lordship of Ireland” fell directly under the English Crown.

    Ireland in 1014: a patchwork of rival kingdoms

    The extent of Norman control of Ireland in 1300

    Lordship of Ireland

    The Normans initially controlled the entire east coast, from Waterford to eastern Ulster, and penetrated a considerable distance inland as well. The counties were ruled by many smaller kings. The first Lord of Ireland was King John, who visited Ireland in 1185 and 1210 and helped consolidate the Norman-controlled areas, while ensuring that the many Irish kings swore fealty to him.

    Throughout the thirteenth century the policy of the English Kings was to weaken the power of the Norman Lords in Ireland. For example, King John encouraged Hugh de Lacy to destabilize and then overthrow the Lord of Ulster, before naming him as the first Earl of Ulster. The Hiberno-Norman community suffered from a series of invasions that ceased the spread of their settlement and power. Politics and events in Gaelic Ireland served to draw the settlers deeper into the orbit of the Irish.

    Gaelic resurgence and Norman decline

    Irish soldiers, 1521 – by Albrecht Dürer.

    By 1261 the weakening of the Normans had become manifest when Fineen MacCarthy defeated a Norman army at the Battle of Callann. The war continued between the different lords and earls for about 100 years, causing much destruction, especially around Dublin. In this chaotic situation, local Irish lords won back large amounts of land that their families had lost since the conquest and held them after the war was over.

    The Black Death arrived in Ireland in 1348. Because most of the English and Norman inhabitants of Ireland lived in towns and villages, the plague hit them far harder than it did the native Irish, who lived in more dispersed rural settlements. After it had passed, Gaelic Irish language and customs came to dominate the country again. The English-controlled territory shrank to a fortified area around Dublin (the Pale), and had little real authority outside (beyond the Pale).

    By the end of the 15th century, central English authority in Ireland had almost disappeared. England’s attentions were diverted by the Wars of the Roses. The Lordship of Ireland lay in the hands of the powerful Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare, who dominated the country by means of military force and alliances with Irish lords and clans. Around the country, local Gaelic and Gaelicised lords expanded their powers at the expense of the English government in Dublin but the power of the Dublin government was seriously curtailed by the introduction of Poynings’ Law in 1494. According to this act the Irish Parliament was essentially put under the control of the Westminster Parliament.

    Early modern Ireland (1536–1691)

     

    Main article: Ireland 1536–1691

    Conquest and Rebellion

    Tudor conquest of Ireland and Kingdom of Ireland

    From 1536, Henry VIII decided to conquer Ireland and bring it under crown control. The Fitzgerald dynasty of Kildare, who had become the effective rulers of Ireland in the 15th century, had become unreliable allies of the Tudor monarchs. They had invited Burgundian troops into Dublin to crown the Yorkist pretender, Lambert Simnel as King of England in 1487. Again in 1536, Silken Thomas Fitzgerald went into open rebellion against the crown. Having put down this rebellion, Henry resolved to bring Ireland under English government control so the island would not become a base for future rebellions or foreign invasions of England. In 1541 he upgraded Ireland from a lordship to a full Kingdom. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland at a meeting of the Irish Parliament that year. This was the first meeting of the Irish Parliament to be attended by the Gaelic Irish chieftains as well as the Hiberno-Norman aristocracy. With the institutions of government in place, the next step was to extend the control of the English Kingdom of Ireland over all of its claimed territory. This took nearly a century, with various English administrations either negotiating or fighting with the independent Irish and Old English lords. The Spanish Armada in Ireland suffered heavy losses during an extraordinary season of storms in the autumn of 1588. Among the survivors was Captain Francisco de Cuellar, who gave a remarkable account of his experiences on the run in Ireland.

    The re-conquest was completed during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, after several brutal conflicts. (See the Desmond Rebellions (1569–73 and 1579–83 and the Nine Years War 1594–1603, for details). After this point, the English authorities in Dublin established real control over Ireland for the first time, bringing a centralized government to the entire island, and successfully disarmed the native lordships. However, the English were not successful in converting the Catholic Irish to the Protestant religion and the brutal methods used by crown authority (including resorting to martial law) to bring the country under English control heightened resentment of English rule.

    From the mid-16th to the early 17th century, crown governments carried out a policy of land confiscation and colonization known as Plantations. Scottish and English Protestant colonists were sent to the provinces of Munster, Ulster and the counties of Laois and Offaly. These Protestant settlers replaced the Irish Catholic landowners who were removed from their lands. These settlers formed the ruling class of future British appointed administrations in Ireland. Several Penal Laws, aimed at Catholics, Baptists and Presbyterians, were introduced to encourage conversion to the established (Anglican) Church of Ireland.

    Wars and Penal Laws

     

     

    After an unusually bitter Irish Catholic rebellion and civil war, Oliver Cromwell, on behalf of the English Commonwealth, re-conquered Ireland by invasion which lasted from 1649 to 1651. Under Cromwell’s government, landownership in Ireland was transferred overwhelmingly to puritan soldiery and commercial undertakers to pay for the war.

    The 17th century was perhaps the bloodiest in Ireland’s history. Two periods of war (1641–53 and 1689–91) caused huge loss of life. The ultimate dispossession of most of the Irish Catholic landowning class was engineered, and recusants were subordinated under the Penal Laws.

    During the 17th century Ireland was convulsed by eleven years of warfare, beginning with the Rebellion of 1641, when Irish Catholics rebelled against the domination of English and Protestant settlers. The Catholic gentry briefly ruled the country as Confederate Ireland (1642–1649) against the background of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms until Oliver Cromwell reconquered Ireland in 1649–1653 on behalf of the English Commonwealth. Cromwell’s conquest was the most brutal phase of the war. By its close, up to a third of Ireland’s pre-war population was dead or in exile. As retribution for the rebellion of 1641, the better-quality remaining lands owned by Irish Catholics were confiscated and given to British settlers commenced. Several hundred remaining native landowners were transplanted to Connacht.

    James VII and II.

    Forty years later, Irish Catholics, known as “Jacobites”, fought for James from 1688 to 1691, but failed to restore James to the throne of Ireland, England and Scotland.

    Ireland became the main battleground after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when the Catholic James II left London and the English Parliament replaced him with William of Orange. The wealthier Irish Catholics backed James to try to reverse the Penal Laws and land confiscations, whereas Protestants supported William and Mary in this ‘Glorious Revolution’ to preserve their property in the country. James and William fought for the Kingdom of Ireland in the Williamite War, most famously at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, where James’ outnumbered forces were defeated.

    Slavery

    From the 15th to the 18th century, Irish prisoners were sold as slaves.

    For centuries, the Irish were dehumanized by the English, described as savages, so making their murder and displacement appear all the more justified.

    In 1654 the British parliament gave Oliver Cromwell a free hand to banish Irish “undesirables”. Cromwell rounded up Catholics throughout the Irish countryside and placed them on ships bound for the Caribbean, mainly Barbados. The authorities in the West Indies, fearing the Irish would resist servitude, treated the prisoners harshly. Records suggest that priests may have been routinely tortured and executed. By 1655, 12,000 political prisoners had been forcibly shipped to Barbados.

    Protestant ascendancy (1691–1801)

    Ireland 1691–1801

    See also: Protestant Ascendancy

    Jacobite resistance in Ireland was finally ended after the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691. The Penal Laws that had been relaxed somewhat after the Restoration were reinforced more thoroughly after this war, as the infant Anglo-Irish Ascendency novo élite wanted to ensure that the Irish Roman Catholics would not be in a position to repeat their rebellions.

    Subsequent Irish antagonism toward England was aggravated by the economic situation of Ireland in the 18th century. Some absentee landlords managed their estates inefficiently, and food tended to be produced for export rather than for domestic consumption. Two very cold winters near the end of the Little Ice Age led directly to a famine between 1740 and 1741, which killed about 400,000 people and caused over 150,000 Irish to leave the island. In addition, Irish exports were reduced by the Navigation Acts from the 1660s, which placed tariffs on Irish products entering England, but exempted English goods from tariffs on entering Ireland. Despite this most of the 18th century was relatively peaceful in comparison with the preceding two centuries, and the population doubled to over four million.

    By the late 18th century, many of the Anglo-Irish ruling class had come to see Ireland as their native country.

    A Parliamentary faction led by Henry Grattan agitated for a more favorable trading relationship with Great Britain and for greater legislative independence for the Irish Parliament. However, reform in Ireland stalled over the more radical proposals toward enfranchising Irish Catholics. This was partially enabled in 1793, but Catholics could not yet become members of the Irish Parliament, or become government officials. Some were attracted to the more militant example of the French Revolution of 1789.

    Presbyterians and Dissenters too faced persecution on a lesser scale, and in 1791 a group of dissident Protestant individuals, where all but two were Presbyterians, held the first meeting of what would become the Society of the United Irishmen. Originally they sought to reform the Irish Parliament which was controlled by those belonging to the state church; seek Catholic Emancipation; and help remove religion from politics. When their ideals seemed unattainable they became more determined to use force to overthrow British rule and found a non-sectarian republic. Their activity culminated in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which was bloodily suppressed. Largely in response to this rebellion, Irish self-government was abolished altogether by the Act of Union in 1801 (which abolished the Irish Parliament of that era).

    Union with Great Britain (1801–1912)

    Ireland 1801–1922

     

     

    Daniel O’Connell

    In 1800, following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British and the Irish parliaments enacted the Acts of Union. The merger created a new political entity called United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801. Part of the agreement forming the basis of union was that the Test Act would be repealed to remove any remaining discrimination against Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Baptists and other dissenter religions in the newly United Kingdom. However, King George III, invoking the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 controversially and adamantly blocked attempts by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger. Pitt resigned in protest, but his successor Henry Addington and his new cabinet failed to legislate any repeal or change to the Test Act.

    In 1823 an enterprising Catholic lawyer, Daniel O’Connell, known in Ireland as ‘The Liberator’ began an ultimately successful Irish campaign to achieve emancipation, and to be seated in the Parliament. This culminated in O’Connell’s successful election in the Clare by-election, which revived the parliamentary efforts at reform. The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was eventually approved by the UK parliament under the leadership of the Dublin-born Prime Minister, the Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. This indefatigable Anglo-Irish statesman, a former Chief Secretary for Ireland, and hero of the Napoleonic Wars, successfully guided the legislation through both houses of Parliament. By threatening to resign, he persuaded King George IV to sign the bill into law in 1829. The continuing obligation of Roman Catholics to fund the established Church of Ireland, however, led to the sporadic skirmishes of the Tithe War of 1831–38.

    The Church was disestablished by the Gladstone government in 1867. The continuing enactment of parliamentary reform during the ensuing administrations further extended the initially limited franchise. Daniel O’Connell M.P. later led the Repeal Association in an unsuccessful campaign to undo the Act of Union 1800.

    The second of Ireland’s “Great Famines”, An Gorta Mór struck the country during 1845–49, with potato blight, exacerbated by the political and laissez-faire economic factors of the time leading to mass starvation and emigration. (See Great Irish Famine.) The impact of emigration in Ireland was severe; the population dropped from over 8 million before the Famine to 4.4 million in 1911. Gaelic or Irish, once the island’s spoken language, declined in use sharply in the nineteenth century as a result of the Famine and the creation of the National School education system, as well as hostility to the language from leading Irish politicians of the time; it was largely replaced by English.

    Outside mainstream nationalism, a series of violent rebellions by Irish republicans took place in 1803, under Robert Emmet; in 1848 a rebellion by the Young Irelanders, most prominent among them, Thomas Francis Meagher; and in 1867, another insurrection by the Irish Republican Brotherhood. All failed, but physical force nationalism remained an undercurrent in the nineteenth century.

     

    Irish family evicted at Moyasta, County Clare during Land War, c.1879

    The late 19th century also witnessed major land reform, spearheaded by the Land League under Michael Davitt demanding what became known as the 3 Fs; Fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure. From 1870 and as a result of the Land War agitations and subsequent Plan of Campaign of the 1880s, various UK governments introduced a series of Irish Land Acts. William O’Brien played a leading role in the 1902 Land Conference to pave the way for the most advanced social legislation in Ireland since the Union, the Wyndham Land Purchase Act of 1903. This Act set the conditions for the break-up of large estates and gradually devolved to rural landholders, and tenants’ ownership of the lands. It effectively ended the era of the absentee landlord, finally resolving the Irish Land Question.

    In the 1870s the issue of Irish self-government again became a major focus of debate under Charles Stewart Parnell, founder of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Prime Minister Gladstone made two unsuccessful attempts to pass Home Rule in 1886 and 1893. Parnell’s leadership ended when he was implicated in a controversial divorce scandal. It was revealed that he had been living in family relationship with Katherine O’Shea, the long-separated wife of a fellow Irish MP; he had fathered three children with the woman.

    After the introduction of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 which broke the power of the landlord-dominated “Grand Juries”, passing for the first time democratic control of local affairs into the hands of the people through elected Local County Councils, the debate over full Home Rule led to tensions between Irish nationalists and Irish unionists (those who favored maintenance of the Union). Most of the island was predominantly nationalist, Catholic and agrarian. The northeast, however, was predominantly unionist, Protestant and industrialized. Unionists feared a loss of political power and economic wealth in a predominantly rural, nationalist, Catholic home-rule state. Nationalists believed they would remain economically and politically second-class citizens without self-government. Out of this division, two opposing sectarian movements evolved the Protestant Orange Order and the Catholic Ancient Order of Hibernians.

    Home Rule, Easter Rising and War of Independence (1912–1922)

    Irish revolutionary period

    Home Rule became certain when in 1910 the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) under John Redmond held the balance of power in Commons and the third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912. Unionist resistance was immediate with the formation of the Ulster Volunteers. In turn the Irish Volunteers were established to oppose them and enforce the introduction of self-government.

     

     

    The Easter Proclamation, issued by Leaders of the Easter Rising

    In September 1914, just as the First World War broke out, the UK Parliament passed the Third Home Rule Act to establish self-government for Ireland, but was suspended for the duration of the war. To ensure implementation of Home Rule after the war, nationalist leaders and the IPP under Redmond supported with Ireland’s participation in the British and Allied war effort under the Triple Entente against the expansion of Central Powers. The core of the Irish Volunteers were against this decision, but the majority left to form the National Volunteers who enlisted in Irish regiments of the New British Army, the 10th and 16th (Irish) Divisions, their Northern counterparts in the 36th (Ulster) Division. Before the war ended, Britain made two concerted efforts to implement Home Rule, one in May 1916 and again with the Irish Convention during 1917–1918, but the Irish sides (Nationalist, Unionist) were unable to agree to terms for the temporary or permanent exclusion of Ulster from its provisions.

    The period 1916–1921 was marked by political violence and upheaval, ending in the partition of Ireland and independence for 26 of its 32 counties. A failed militant attempt was made to gain separate independence for Ireland with the 1916 Easter Rising, an insurrection in Dublin. Though support for the insurgents was small, the violence used in its suppression led to a swing in support of the rebels. In addition, the unprecedented threat of Irishmen being conscripted to the British Army in 1918 (for service on the Western Front as a result of the German Spring Offensive) accelerated this change. (See: Conscription Crisis of 1918).

    In the December 1918 elections Sinn Féin, the party of the rebels, won three-quarters of all seats in Ireland, twenty-seven MPs of which assembled in Dublin on 21 January 1919 to form a 32-county Irish Republic Parliament, the first Dáil Éireann unilaterally declaring sovereignty over the entire island.

    Irish parliaments

    House of Lords of the Kingdom of Ireland (abolished 1800)

    House of Commons of the Kingdom of Ireland (abolished 1800)

    Leinster House, home of the Ireland’s parliament since 1922.

    Parliament Buildings (Stormont). Previously home of Parliament. Now used by the Assembly.

    Unwilling to negotiate any understanding with Britain short of complete independence, the Irish Republican Army, the army of the newly declared Irish Republic, waged a guerilla war (the Irish War of Independence) from 1919 to 1921. In the course of the fighting and amid much acrimony, the Fourth Government of Ireland Act 1920 implemented Home Rule while separating the island into what the British government’s Act termed “Northern Ireland” and “Southern Ireland”.

    In July 1921 the Irish and British governments agreed to a truce that halted the war. In December 1921 representatives of both governments signed an Anglo-Irish Treaty. The Irish delegation was led by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins. This abolished the Irish Republic and created the Irish Free State, a self-governing Dominion of the Commonwealth of Nations in the manner of Canada and Australia. Under the Treaty, Northern Ireland could opt out of the Free State and stay within the United Kingdom: it promptly did so. In 1922 both parliaments ratified the Treaty, formalizing independence for the 26-county Irish Free State (which renamed itself Ireland in 1937, and declared itself a republic in 1949); while the 6-county Northern Ireland, gaining Home Rule for itself, remained part of the United Kingdom. For most of the next 75 years, each territory was strongly aligned to either Catholic or Protestant ideologies, although this was more marked in the six counties of Northern Ireland.

    Free State and Republic (1922–present)

    History of the Republic of Ireland; Irish Free State, Republic of Ireland; Names of the Irish state

    Political map of Ireland

    The treaty to sever the Union divided the republican movement into anti-Treaty (who wanted to fight on until an Irish Republic was achieved) and pro-Treaty supporters (who accepted the Free State as a first step towards full independence and unity). Between 1922 and 1923 both sides fought the bloody Irish Civil War.

    The new Irish Free State government defeated the anti-Treaty remnant of the Irish Republican Army, imposing multiple executions.

    This division among nationalists still colors Irish politics today, specifically between the two leading Irish political parties, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael.

    The new Irish Free State (1922–37) existed against the backdrop of the growth of dictatorships in mainland Europe and a major world economic downturn in 1929. In contrast with many contemporary European states it remained a democracy. Testament to this came when the losing faction in the Irish civil war, Éamon de Valera’s Fianna Fáil, was able to take power peacefully by winning the 1932 general election. Nevertheless, until the mid-1930s, considerable parts of Irish society saw the Free State through the prism of the civil war, as a repressive, British-imposed state. It was only the peaceful change of government in 1932 that signaled the final acceptance of the Free State on their part. In contrast to many other states in the period, the Free State remained financially solvent as a result of low government expenditure, despite the Economic War with Britain. However, unemployment and emigration were high. The population declined to a low of 2.7 million recorded in the 1961 census.

    The Roman Catholic Church had a powerful influence over the Irish state for much of its history. The clergy’s influence meant that the Irish state had very conservative social policies, forbidding, for example, divorce, contraception, abortion, pornography as well as encouraging the censoring and banning of many books and films. In addition the Church largely controlled the State’s hospitals, schools and remained the largest provider of many other social services.

    With the partition of Ireland in 1922, 92.6% of the Free State’s population was Catholic while 7.4% were Protestant.

    By the 1960s the Protestant population had fallen by half. Although emigration was high among all the population, due to a lack of economic opportunity, the rate of Protestant emigration was disproportionate in this period. Many Protestants left the country in the early 1920s, either because they felt unwelcome in a predominantly Catholic and nationalist state, because they were afraid due to the burning of Protestant homes (particularly of the old landed class) by republicans during the civil war, because they regarded themselves as British and did not wish to live in an independent Irish state, or because of the economic disruption caused by the recent violence. The Catholic Church had also issued a decree, known as Ne Temere, whereby the children of marriages between Catholics and Protestants had to be brought up as Catholics.

    From 1945, the emigration rate of Protestants fell and they became less likely to emigrate than Catholics.

    President John F. Kennedy in motorcade in Cork on 27 June 1963

    In 1937 a new Constitution re-established the state as Ireland (or Éire in Irish).

    The state remained neutral throughout World War II (see Irish neutrality), which saved it from much of the horrors of the war, although tens of thousands volunteered to serve in the British forces. Ireland was also impacted by food rationing, and coal shortages; peat production became a priority during this time.

    Though nominally neutral, recent studies have suggested a far greater level of involvement by the South with the Allies than was realized, with D Day’s date set on the basis of secret weather information on Atlantic storms supplied by Ireland. For more detail on 1939–45, see main article The Emergency.

    In 1949 the state was formally declared a republic and it left the British Commonwealth.

    In the 1960s, Ireland underwent a major economic change under reforming Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Seán Lemass and Secretary of the Department of Finance T.K. Whitaker, who produced a series of economic plans. Free second-level education was introduced by Donogh O’Malley as Minister for Education in 1968. From the early 1960s, Ireland sought admission to the European Economic Community but, because 90% of exports were to the United Kingdom market, it did not do so until the UK did, in 1973.

    Global economic problems in the 1970s, augmented by a set of misjudged economic policies followed by governments, including that of Taoiseach Jack Lynch, caused the Irish economy to stagnate.

    The Troubles in Northern Ireland discouraged foreign investment.

    Devaluation was enabled when the Irish Pound, or Punt, was established as a separate currency in 1979, breaking the link with the UK’s sterling. However, economic reforms in the late 1980s, helped by investment from the European Community, led to the emergence of one of the world’s highest economic growth rates, with mass immigration (particularly of people from Asia and Eastern Europe) as a feature of the late 1990s.

    This period came to be known as the Celtic Tiger and was focused on as a model for economic development in the former Eastern Bloc states, which entered the European Union in the early 2000s. Property values had raised by a factor of between four and ten between 1993 and 2006, in part fuelling the boom.

    Irish society adopted relatively liberal social policies during this period. Divorce was legalized, homosexuality decriminalized, and abortion in limited cases was allowed by the Irish Supreme Court in the X Case legal judgement.

    Major scandals in the Roman Catholic Church, both sexual and financial, coincided with a widespread decline in religious practice, with weekly attendance at Roman Catholic Mass dropping by half in twenty years. A series of tribunals set up from the 1990s have investigated alleged malpractices by politicians, the Catholic clergy, judges, hospitals and the Gardaí (police).

    Ireland’s new found prosperity ended abruptly in 2008 when the banking system collapsed due to the Irish property bubble bursting. This resulted in a major financial and political crisis as Ireland entered a recession.

    Emigration rose to 1989 levels as the unemployment rate rose from 4.2% in 2007 to reach 14.6% as of February 2012.

    Northern Ireland (1921–present)

    Main article: History of Northern Ireland

    “A Protestant state” (1921–1972)

    The 1920 Government of Ireland Bill created the state of Northern Ireland, which consisted of the six northeastern counties of Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Antrim, Down and Armagh.

    From 1921 to 1972, Northern Ireland was governed by a Unionist government, based at Stormont in east Belfast. Unionist leader and first Prime Minister, James Craig, declared that it would be “a Protestant State for a Protestant People”. Craig’s goal was to form and preserve Protestant authority in the new state which was above all an effort to secure a unionist majority. In 1926 the majority of the population in the province was Presbyterian and Anglican therefore solidifying Craig’s Protestant political power. The Ulster Unionist Party thereafter formed every government until 1972.

    Discrimination against the minority nationalist community in jobs and housing, and their total exclusion from political power due to the majoritarian electoral system, led to the emergence of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association in the late 1960s, inspired by Martin Luther King’s civil rights movement in the United States of America. The military forces of the Northern Protestants and Northern Catholics (IRA) turned to brutal acts of violence to establish power. As time went on it became clear that these two rival states would bring about a civil war.

    After the Second World War, keeping the cohesion within Stormont seemed impossible; increased economic pressures, solidified Catholic unity, and British involvement ultimately led to Stormont’s collapse. As the civil rights movement of the United States gained worldwide acknowledgement, Catholics rallied together to achieve a similar socio-political recognition. This resulted in the formation of various organisations such as the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) in 1967 and the Campaign for Social Justice (CSJ) in 1964.

    Non-violent protest became an increasingly important factor in mobilizing Catholic sympathies and opinion and thus more effective in generating support than actively violent groups such as the IRA. However, these non-violent protests posed a problem to Northern Ireland’s Prime Minister Terrance O’Neil (1963) because it hampered his efforts to persuade Catholics in Northern Ireland that they too, like their Protestant counterparts, belong within the United Kingdom. Despite O’Neil’s reforming efforts there was growing discontent amongst both Catholics and Unionists. In October 1968 a peaceful civil rights march in Derry turned violent as police brutally beat protesters. The outbreak was televised by international media, and as a result the march was highly publicized which further confirmed the socio-political turmoil in Ireland.

    A violent counter-reaction from conservative unionists led to civil disorder, notably the Battle of the Bogside and the Northern Ireland riots of August 1969. To restore order, British troops were deployed to the streets of Northern Ireland at that time.

    The violent outbreaks in the late 1960s encouraged and helped strengthen military groups such as the IRA, who posited themselves as the protectors of the working class Catholics who were vulnerable to police and civilian brutality. During the late sixties and early seventies recruitment into the IRA organization dramatically increased as street and civilian violence worsened. The interjection from the British troops proved to be insufficient to quell the violence and thus solidified the IRA’s growing military importance.

    On 30 January 1972 the worst tensions came to a head with the events of Bloody Sunday. Paratroops opened fire on civil rights protesters in Derry, killing 13 unarmed civilians. Bloody Friday, Bloody Sunday, and other violent acts in the early 1970s came to be known as the Troubles. The Stormont parliament was prorogued in 1972 and abolished in 1973. Paramilitary private armies such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, resulted from a split within the IRA, the Official IRA and Irish National Liberation Army fought against the Ulster Defence Regiment and the Ulster Volunteer Force. Moreover, the British army and the (largely Protestant) Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) also took part in the chaos that resulted in the deaths of over 3,000 men, women and children, civilians and military. Most of the violence took place in Northern Ireland, but some also spread to England and across the Irish border.

    Irish Police forces

    —Defunct Irish Police Forces—

    Royal Irish Constabulary

    (1822—1922)

    Dublin Metropolitan Police

    (1836—1925)

    Irish Republican Police

    (Irish Republic 1920—1922)

    Royal Ulster Constabulary

    (1922—2001)

    —Current Irish Police Forces—

    Northern Ireland

    Belfast Harbour Police

    (1847)

    Larne Harbour Police

    (1847)

    Royal Military Police

    (1946)

    Belfast International Airport Constabulary

    (1994)

    Police Service of Northern Ireland

    (2001)

    Ministry of Defence Police

    (2004)

    Republic of Ireland

    Garda Síochána

    (1922)

    Póilíní Airm

    (1922)

    Garda Síochána Reserve

    (2006)

     

    Direct rule (1972–1999)

    For the next 27½ years, with the exception of five months in 1974, Northern Ireland was under “direct rule” with a Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in the British Cabinet responsible for the departments of the Northern Ireland government. Direct Rule was designed to be a temporary solution until Northern Ireland was capable of governing itself again. Principal acts were passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in the same way as for much of the rest of the UK, but many smaller measures were dealt with by Order in Council with minimal parliamentary scrutiny. Attempts were made to establish a power-sharing executive, representing both the nationalist and unionist communities, by the Northern Ireland Constitution Act of 1973 and the Sunningdale Agreement in December 1973. Both acts however did little to create cohesion between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

    The Constitution Act of 1973 formalized the UK government’s affirmation of reunification of Ireland by consent only; therefore ultimately delegating the authoritative power of the border question from Stormont to the people of Northern Ireland (and the Republic of Ireland). Conversely, the Sunningdale Agreement included a “provision of a Council of Ireland which held the right to execute executive and harmonizing functions”. Most significantly, the Sunningdale Agreement brought together political leaders from Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the UK to deliberate for the first time since 1925.

    The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention and Jim Prior’s 1982 assembly were also temporarily implemented; however all failed to either reach consensus or operate in the longer term.

    During the 1970s British policy concentrated on defeating the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) by military means including the policy of Ulsterization (requiring the RUC and British Army reserve Ulster Defence Regiment to be at the forefront of combating the IRA). Although IRA violence decreased it was obvious that no military victory was on hand in either the short or medium terms. Even Catholics who generally rejected the IRA were unwilling to offer support to a state that seemed to remain mired in sectarian discrimination, and the Unionists were not interested in Catholic participation in running the state in any case. In the 1980s the IRA attempted to secure a decisive military victory based on massive arms shipments from Libya. When this failed, senior republican figures began to look to broaden the struggle from purely military means. In time this began a move towards military cessation.

     In 1986 the British and Irish governments signed the Anglo Irish Agreement signaling a formal partnership in seeking a political solution. The Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) recognized the Irish government’s right to be consulted and heard as well as guaranteed equality of treatment and recognition of the Irish and British identities of the two communities. The agreement also stated that the two governments must implement a cross-border co-operation.

    Socially and economically Northern Ireland suffered the worst levels of unemployment in the UK and although high levels of public spending ensured a slow modernization of public services and moves towards equality, progress was slow in the 1970s and 1980s. Only in the 1990s, when progress toward peace became tangible, did the economic situation brighten. By then the demographics of Northern Ireland had undergone significant change, and more than 40% of the population was Catholic.

    Devolution and direct rule (1999–present)

    More recently, the Belfast Agreement (“Good Friday Agreement”) of 10 April 1998 brought – on 2 December 1999 – a degree of power sharing to Northern Ireland, giving both unionists and nationalist’s control of limited areas of government. However, both the power-sharing Executive and the elected Assembly were suspended between January and May 2000, and from October 2002 until April 2007, following breakdowns in trust between the political parties involving outstanding issues, including “decommissioning” of paramilitary weapons, policing reform and the removal of British army bases. In new elections in 2003, the moderate Ulster Unionist and (nationalist) Social Democrat and Labour parties lost their dominant positions to the more hardline Democratic Unionist and (nationalist) Sinn Féin parties. On 28 July 2005, the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and on 25 September 2005 international weapons inspectors supervised the full disarmament of the PIRA. Eventually, devolution was restored in April 2007.

    Modern Ireland

    Ireland’s economy has evolved greatly, becoming more diverse and sophisticated than ever before by integrating itself into the global economy. By the beginning of the 1990s Ireland had transformed itself into a modern industrial economy and generated substantial national income that benefited the entire nation. Although dependence on agriculture still remained high, Ireland’s industrial economy produced sophisticated goods that rivaled international competition. Ireland’s international economic boom of the 1990s led to its being called the “Celtic Tiger.”

    The Catholic Church, which once exercised great power, found its influence on socio-political issues in Ireland much reduced. Irish bishops were no longer able to advise and influence the public on how to exercise their political rights. Modern Ireland’s detachment of the Church from ordinary life can be explained by the increasing disinterest in Church doctrine by younger generations and the questionable morality of the Church’s representatives. A highly publicized case was that of Eamonn Casey, the Bishop of Galway, who resigned abruptly in 1992 after it was revealed that he had had an affair with an American woman and had fathered a child. Further controversies and scandals arose concerning pedophile and child-abusing priests. As a result, many in the Irish public began to question the credibility and effectiveness of the Catholic Church.

    In 2011 Ireland closed its embassy at the Vatican, an apparent result of this growing trend.

    Flags in Ireland

     

     

     

    The Irish tricolor

    The Union Flag

    The national flag of Ireland is a tricolor of green, white and orange. This flag, which bears the colors green for Roman Catholics, orange for Protestants, and white for the desired peace between them, dates to mid-19th century.

    The tricolor was first unfurled in public by Young Irelander Thomas Francis Meagher who, using the symbolism of the flag, explained his vision as follows: “The white in the center signifies a lasting truce between the “Orange” and the “Green,” and I trust that beneath its folds the hands of the Irish Protestant and the Irish Catholic may be clasped in generous and heroic brotherhood”. Fellow nationalist John Mitchel said of it: “I hope to see that flag one day waving as our national banner.”

    After its use in the 1916 rising it became widely accepted by nationalists as the national flag, and was used officially by the Irish Republic (1919–21) and the Irish Free State (1922–37).

    In 1937 when the Constitution of Ireland was introduced, the tricolor was formally confirmed as the national flag: “The national flag is the tricolor of green, white and orange.” While the tricolor today is the official flag of Ireland, it is not an official flag in Northern Ireland although it is sometimes used unofficially.

    The only official flag representing Northern Ireland is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Ulster Banner is sometimes used unofficially as a de facto regional flag for Northern Ireland.

    Since Partition, there has been no universally-accepted flag to represent the entire island. As a provisional solution for certain sports fixtures, the Flag of the Four Provinces enjoys a certain amount of general acceptance and popularity.

    Historically a number of flags have been used, including:

    Saint Patrick’s Flag (St Patrick’s Saltire, St Patrick’s Cross) which represented Ireland on the Union Flag after the Act of Union;

    A green flag with a harp (used by most nationalists in the 19th century and which is also the flag of Leinster);

    A blue flag with a harp used from the 18th century onwards by many nationalists (now the standard of the President of Ireland);

    The Irish tricolor.

    St Patrick’s Saltire was formerly used to represent the island of Ireland by the all-island Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU), before adoption of the four-provinces flag. The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) uses the tricolor to represent the whole island.

    References

    Bradley, Richard (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-84811-3.

     O’Brian, William (2005). Ross Island: Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Oxbow books. ISBN 978-0-9535620-3-9.

    Johnston, Wesley; Abbot, Patrick. “Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age”. History of Ireland. WesleyJohnston.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012.

    Moody, T.W; Martin, F.X; Byrne, F.J, eds. (1982). A New History of Ireland VIII: A Chronology of Irish History to 1976 – A Companion to Irish History Part I. Oxford Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821744-7.

    Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.42, 43, 44, 45, 46

    Francis J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings, Four Courts press, 2001, p. 65-69

    Wikisource link to Wikisource – Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 12. Wikisource.

    Welch, Robert (2003). The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192800800.

    Charles-Edwards, Thomas M (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0521037167.

    Foster, RF (1989). The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Annals. Annals of Ulster and Annals of the Four Masters. “Palladius, having been consecrated by Celestine, bishop of the city of Rome, is sent to Ireland [...] in the eighth year of Theodosius.”

    Annals of Ulster – U432. Annals of Ulster. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “Year U432: Patrick arrived in Ireland in the ninth year of the reign of Theodosius the Less and in the first year of the episcopate of Xistus, 42nd bishop of the Roman Church. So Bede, Maxcellinus and Isidore compute in their chronicles.”

    R. B. Stothers (26 January 1984). “Mystery cloud of AD 536″. Nature magazine. pp. 307, 344 – 345. doi:10.1038/307344a0. Retrieved 17 November 2012.

     Annals of Ulster – Part 105. Annals of Ulster. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “U536.3 Failure of bread”

     to: a b Duffy, S (2005).

    The Concise History of Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 9780717138104.

    Annals of the Four Masters – Part 49. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.

     Weston Joyce, Patrick (1903). Medicine and Medical Doctors. Longmans.

     Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. Vikings & Ireland (in English). Cork, Ireland: University College Cork. Retrieved 17 November 2012.

     Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972). Ireland Before the Normans. The Gill history of Ireland. Gill and MacMillan.

     Wikisource link to Wikisource – Treaty of Windsor. Wikisource. “Text reads: This is the agreement which was made at Windsor in the octaves of Michaelmas [October 6] in the year of Our Lord 1175″

     Annals of the Four Masters – Part 9. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “Great heat and drought prevailed in this Summer, so that people crossed the beds of the principal rivers of Ireland with dry feet. The reaping of the corn crops of Ireland was going on twenty days before Lammas 1 August, and the trees were scorched by the heat of the sun.”

     Moody, TW & Martin, FX (eds) (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork, Ireland: The Mercier Press. p. 370.

     Annals of the Four Masters – Part 10. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “A wonderful animal was sent to Ireland by the King of England. She resembled a mare, and was of a yellow color, with the hoofs, of a cow, a long neck, a very large head, a large tail, which was ugly and scant of hair. She had a saddle of her own. Wheat and salt were her usual food. She used to draw the largest sled-burden by her tail. She used to kneel when passing under any doorway, however high, and also to let her rider mount.”

    Annals of the Four Masters – Part 12. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “There was an earthquake at Sliabh Gamh, by which a hundred persons were destroyed, among whom was the son of Manus Crossagh O’Hara. Many horses and cows were also killed by it, and much putrid fish was thrown up; and a lake, in which fish is now caught, sprang up in the place.”

    Annals of the Four Masters – Part 13. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012. “Great famine prevailed through all Ireland in this and the following year, so that people ate of food unbecoming to mention, and never before heard of as having been introduced on human dishes.”

    Fitzpatrick, W.E, ed. (1978). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0901714100.

     Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.

     

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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • Starpeople, Starseeds Generations of Ascension Age on Earth

    English: The number of births per thousand peo...
    English: The number of births per thousand people in the United States. The blue segment is defined as the Baby Boomer by the United States government. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    Star People’s Star Seeds Soul Purpose

    By Theresa J MorrisAscension Age 2012 & Beyond on Amazon

    English: Artist's conception of the spiral str...
    English: Artist’s conception of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a central bar. “Using infrared images from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have discovered that the Milky Way’s elegant spiral structure is dominated by just two arms wrapping off the ends of a central bar of stars. Previously, our galaxy was thought to possess four major arms.” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    The Golden Age of Cosmology sentient intelligent beings who desire to work with Ascension Avatar Masters on earth are becoming widely known.

    Thanks to the new age of communication on the Internet there are more people who are evolving into those who we once saw listed traits in the book by Brad & Francie Steiger called The Star People.

    Homo Sapiens Sapiens “Angelic Characteristics of the Star People” is quite interesting for those who now desire to share in the Age of Aquarius we also call the Ascension Age of the Lightworkers & Truthseekers.

    There is more than a sense of mission and soul purpose of the ones who came during the period after World War II to the children born between 1946 and 1966 we called the “Baby Boomer Generation”.

    Star People Generation had the Star Seeds from 1967 through 1987 as Indigo Children who had the Rainbow Children 1988-2008 which had the Crystal Children 2009-2029 although in the New Golden Age of Cosmology there are various groups who claim title to the descriptions of Indigos among the Parent age of the Baby Boomers which is not in actuality why the “Mystics, Oracles, Psychics, Sages, Seers, Shaman” began speaking of the various Star Seed Generations as Indigo-Rainbow-Crystal generations and their various people in books who shared these titles for various reasons based on the various abilities including attention deficit disorder or begin able to see ghosts, and sharing their social paranormal abilities in this golden age of the paranormal change in dimensions, realms, and virtual reality. The Computer Information Age has shared technology which allows various members of the planet to accept the access to the akashic field as that which also taps into that which is being co-created by all of us in the internet as in cyberspace. We now call this region of the other word in the ethers as “Cyberspace” and “Virtual Reality Plane”. We are learning to share that these realms have always existed it was just our technological advances are returning to those on the planet who have come full circle since the days we all share in MU and ATLANTIS. This is the Atlantis New Beginning.

    On earth empathic senses are now prevalent on the North American Continent and imparticular in the United States of America. Although our older Ancient Mystery Schools may have been first shared in Babylon and in cuneiform writings in the ancient lands of the old world we study in our Ancient History, we now accept Modern History as that which is being written since World War II in the Industrial Age and beyond. The Information Age is one which has speeded up exponentially since Microsoft Windows ’95 and the World Wide Web became well known and used as the Internet Online in the 1990’s.

    Born to make a change on the planet we now share 2014. Many Babyboomer are choosing to not retire as we one thought we would like our parents once did. The age of retirement may soon become a thing of the past although the present physical body does seem to require more attention to physical-mental- and emotional detail at age 61 years. The physical body just begins the decay and breakdown and 62 years of age does see some arthritis and other ailments creeping in. Although many Babyboomers are now semi-retired they are running a business part-time out of their homes on the Internet Online.

    Many are sharing their content creations and website finds while browsing on the Internet. Many are now bloggers and are about making the world a better place by sharing their knowledge as content on the internet. Social media came along with various locations including Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In, MySpace, Pinterest, Plus Google, and more.

    There are those who are our peers as baby boomers and shared books of those who wanted to share as guides and seemed to be pre-programmed as such. The authors who were ready to share their finds became well known in the niche genre of the social paranormal and sold many books located in the New Age section of book stores.

    We first learned that we exist, we grow, we maintain, we create new thought patterns for culture and society, and now we co-create a better world for our progeny.

    The Art of the Star People is shared in many ways in visual and performing arts and many know that they come from the stars. They accept that they are just visiting this planet and that their parents are in heaven so to speak in more than one way. Some actually take care of their own birth parents of earth in this time of 2014. There are many who are taking care of their grand-children while also taking care of their parents.

    Many Star People don’t worry much about material wealth and find they have shared with their younger generations as Generations X & Y as their children and grand-children to learn to give back to the planet in their communities and to adjust society with the economics of the migrating middle class citizens in a new global community.

    Many do now recognize they share common traits of lucid dreaming and have a place in their hearts for returning home spiritually. Many welcome the fact that they are not alone in the universe and share their universal order with those above called the Galactic Federation and the Supreme High Counsel.

    There are those who share that the universe is divided up in quadrants and that there are billions of galaxies in this realm or quadrant of the universe which houses both the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy. The families of astronauts, engineers, physicists, scientists, share that the spiritual science of more than epistemology and cosmology is important to their future for economic growth on the planet as well as in space.

    Many know that “Now is the Time” and are aware of the little time they have left on the planet to make a difference and to share that change is constant in the universe.

    The “X- Generation” was their children born 1967-1987 in the twenty year period we accept as one generation in time which is well accepted by archivists, researchers, writers, historians, and those who keep up with demographics. We seem to accept one generation after another as a twenty year interval from the time we ended World War II and began counting the baby boomer generation.

    The “Y-Generation is the younger generation or the grand-children of the Babyboomer generation and has been around in the dates of 1988-2008. The latter dates of 2008 are entering kindergarten-first grade now. They are the parents of the “Z-Generation” which will be 2009-2029.

    The Z Generation will be the parents of those actually born in space and will arrive 2030-2050.  

    The entire planet is about sustainability of both planet and species and not wasting resources, time, effort, or financial funds. We are learning that we want to share the future in space and that while fifty percent in the future will be about maintaining this planet and our species here on earth, there will be 50% who will want to travel and explore space and learn to terra form other planets which the Star People were sent here to remind us to do. After all, we all have a soul purpose to grow on our spiritual paths which have software that can be written while here while we share our soul purpose as the hardware in body for a temporary container until our spirit returns back to our soul which is the original co-creation of both our Alpha Male and Omega Female somewhere in space.

    Everyone’s Soul Purpose to return to the original source in love of God with more of soul self than when one arrived on this planet. Having as sense of self and community among all the entire species on the planet allows one to know of both inner and outer awakened awareness of soul self-interest and the entire original source self-interest. One is to accompany the other in space exploration and soul exploration. Take care of both means understanding one is to know both inner and outer domains of self-awakening awareness at all times. Whether one visits other parts or realms and dimensions with one’s eyes wide open or shut is up to each individual. Our senses are simply here to guide in our existence in this shared reality. Our basic soul purpose is to love both inner and outer of all. Our individual soul purpose is to know who we are, why we are here, what our offering to others is while here as in sharing our life force and what we expect to take with us when we leave this level of life.

    Sharing the time on earth in space is up to each of us. What and who we put in our own orbit is up to us after the age of adulthood which in spiritual age is after the first probationary twenty years. Star People accept a generation of supervision up to twenty years and not the government age of voting at eighteen years. Twenty through age twenty five is the five years for education or training to support one’s own self while here on the planet. After twenty-five the adult star seed should be allowed to survive on their own skills and to maintain their own sustenance no matter which part of the planet they were born.

    The Star People who share the Star Seeds are sharing that there are more than sixth senses as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and feeling. There is all around us and all inside us which is also allowing us to sense both the microcosm and the macrocosm. Both inner being and outer being exists for us all. We all are born to share as body-mind-spirits sharing the birth-life-death process. Star people

    Stars people (also “Starseeds” or “light beings”) is a term used to describe human beings who believe they originated as extraterrestrial life from other worlds or planets, and arrived to Earth through birth or as a walk-in to an existing human body.

    Not of Earth

    Persons calling themselves Starseeds find that they share in common feelings of isolation or aloneness, as though they don’t quite fit in to Earth institutions and current events. It is estimated that 65 percent of Starseeds are women and that about one-fourth of these have unusual blood types. In surveys with people thought to be Star People (Starseeds), the Science Channel reports that nearly half reported near-death experience and seventy-five percent had out-of-body experience. Nearly all of them say they feel tremendous urgency to fulfill a mission.

    Mission

    Starseeds are defined as evolved beings from another planet, star system or galaxy that have come to Earth with the specific mission of assisting its people to achieve a higher level of civilization.

    In reports based on surveys, Starseeds (also “beings of light”) incarnate into human lifeforms and suffer the same conditions of helplessness and total amnesia concerning their identity, origins and life-purpose as Earth humans do. Starseeds differ in a theory that their genes contain alien DNA, and are encoded to awaken them and their awareness at a planned time.

    Awakening

    The awakening process experienced by Starseeds is described as either a gradual series of realizations over time, or an abrupt and dramatic awakening of consciousness. Through the awakening process, Starseeds regain their memories about their past, their origins and their missions. An increase in intuition, psychic ability, and the sense of a more universal “self” that transcends mortal identity are also commonly reported experiences.

    Some star people speak of communication via telepathy with beings not of this world, either physical or non-physical. Elevated awareness claims that communication or memories recall extraterrestrial or multidimensional life, such as “beings of light” (light beings).

    Cosmic view of existence

    Persons who identify themselves and others as Starseeds share a belief that life exists on other planets. Most believe they have lived on other planets, and many account having experiences that they claim are memories of life on other worlds. The concepts of star ships, spaceships, intergalactic travel, psychic phenomena and sentient life forms in other galaxies come naturally and seem logical to them.

    Characteristics and traits

     

    Descriptions and comparisons of traits shared by Starseeds:

    Feeling like a “stranger in a strange land”

    Compelling eyes; unique and striking physical appearance

    Lower than normal body temperature and low blood pressure

    Sharp hearing

    Little sleep requirements

    A strong sense that Earth is not their home

    Visitations by benevolent and luminescent beings with human-appearance

    Was an unexpected child

    Unusual abilities considered paranormal by peers

    Have “flying” dreams

    Extreme sensitivity to electricity and electromagnetic fields

    Feelings that their biological mother and father are not their real parents

    Ongoing longing for some other home

    Had unseen companions as a child

    A deep knowing their home is somewhere among the stars

    Often starry-eyed romantics

    Often notice they glance at a clock when it’s 11:11

    Starseeds in books, music and movies

     

    Literature

    Stranger in a Strange Land, by Robert Heinlein

    The Elder, an elven race in J. R. R. Tolkien’s Sundering of the Elves

    Star People, mythological creatures from the fantasy Narnia world of C. S. Lewis

    Star People, a 2006 novel by Paul Burston

    Aira Flight, in Flight: a quantum fiction novel, a 1995 book by Vanna Bonta about lightbeings on Earth, quantum fabric of existence and the multiverse

    The Star People, a 1987 book by Brad Steiger

    Star People, cuel atah, acjachemen nation Juaneño

    Music

    Star People, a 1983 album by Miles Davis

    Home Is You, music & lyrics by Vanna Bonta about longing for some other home. The song first appeared in a Bonta novel, in a scene where the fictional heroine, Aira Flight, an intrepid Starseed traveler of multiverses and many dimensions, experiences being a human girl for the first time.

    Star People ’97, a 1997 song on the Older album by George Michael

    Star People, a 2002 album by Brulé

    Star People, a music record label

    References

    Who Are Star People? Science Channel; Discovery

    Traits of Starseeds and Star People

    What and Who Is a Starseed? Starseed Alliance International

    All about Starseeds

     

     

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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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  • President Barack Obama Statement on Feb 4, 2014

    Statement by the President

    Today, in a strong bipartisan vote, the U.S. Senate came together to pass a comprehensive Farm Bill – legislation that will build on the historic economic gains in rural America over the past five years, create new jobs and opportunities, and protect the most vulnerable Americans.  This bill provides certainty to America’s farmers and ranchers, and contains a variety of commonsense reforms that my Administration has consistently called for, including reforming and eliminating direct farm subsidies and providing assistance for farmers when they need it most.  It will continue reducing our deficits without gutting the vital assistance programs millions of hardworking Americans count on to help put food on the table for their families.  And it will support conservation of valuable lands, spur the development of renewable energy, and incentivize healthier nutrition for all Americans.   As with any compromise, the Farm Bill isn’t perfect – but on the whole, it will make a positive difference not only for the rural economies that grow America’s food, but for our nation.

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    Theresa Morris

    American News Magazine of TJ Morris ACO Association of Authors, Consultants, Organizers & Guides. Theresa J Morris & Friends share as partners as social entrepreneurs working and co-creating together to overcome all geographic, political, religious, cultural and ethnic boundaries to maintain the single goal and focus to create new hope and opportunities. ACO LLC owner of American News Magazine through founder Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris dba ACIR, and sharing and working in cooperation with other associations, companies and organizations that support Ambassadors of Goodwill. American News Magazine, American Culture International Relations ACIR, ACO

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